estradiol in livestock panadol osteo availability in uk patent expiry of linezolid fc 600mg tablets in uk clomid best days conceive fungsi obat furosemide 20 mg comprar cialis en miami is it safe to take more than one cialis at a time is tadalafil from india real generic viagra from germany ramipril 10 mg capsule purchase lexapro generic airfast 10 mg montelukast tablets para comprar xenical necesito receta normal price viagra when is it best to take effexor xr viagra for sale nicosia como se usa captopril lexapro generic and tired paxil er 25 mg reviews how many ml of amoxicillin for baby cough will 200 mg of sildenafil hurt proscar 5mg canada use of misoprostol in obstetrics and gynecology mirtazapine order online buy flagyl medication prozac usage by state pantoprazole brands in uae viagra vs generic rf value of ibuprofen in ethyl acetate medicamento generico de seroquel obat ranitidine 300 mg mobica in egypt best way to discontinue paxil cual costo vermox how many mg of nolvadex for gyno is it safe to take 15 mg of lexapro over counter substitute lisinopril nolvadex 20 mg controindicazioni cipro in pakistan buy triamcinolone acetonide cream 0.5 what is the generic for dulcolax domperidone in constipation levothyroxine reviews yahoo lasix furosemide cheapesty without prescription warfarin teaching in tagalog propecia need to order buy amoxicillin without canada amlodipine atenolol brands in india carte sim orange mobicarte prix outlets of kamagra in hyderabad zithromax z pak price without insurance biocon orlistat generic atarax 25 mg street value where to buy kamagra over the counter in manchester atarax 25 mg kilo yaparm? sertraline hcl 50 mg para que sirve dual blade reciprocating saw reviews 50 mg viagra not enough ibuprofen in frühschwangerschaft viagra on prescription cost how much is synthroid at walmart buspirone 5mg reviews carvedilol dose in renal failure pamelor howdotofound online paxil best ocd over the counter pill equivalent to nexium keflex suspension 250 mg pediatrico was ist anafranil 25 mg what is the best kind of viagra over counter levitra at walmart non prescription amoxicillin liquid sildenafil 50 ml buy over the counter dose ibuprofen cheap cialis overnight no prescription provera ukradenih vozila cost of phenytoin without insurance prednisone tapering schedule from 50 mg day delivery from same usa viagra sumatriptan succinate 50 mg side effects is zantac contraindicated in pregnancy tacrolimus market buy viagra like covent garden buy lexapro online cheap ibuprofen in 3 month old metronidazole 400 mg and amoxicillin is it safe to take amoxicillin and drink what is the difference in daily and 36 hour cialis what is the price of misoprostol tablet in hyderabad tapering prednisone from 20 mg order 6 month supply of tadalafil 20 mg clonidine use in opioid withdrawal lexapro 10 mg ocd kann man viagra in deutschland rezeptfrei kaufen cephalexin 500 mg para que es glass in atorvastatin calcium nystatin triamcinolone cream usage clomiphene men over counter lexapro generic lose weight estradiol baownbeuv reviews asacol tablet in stool diflucan safe nursing prednisone 5 mg 12 day dose pack instructions viagra delivered next day in kl motrin dosage in toddlers tamoxifeno causa amenorrea floxing research by johanne dubail in genesis is 40 mg prednisone a high dose kamagra 100 chewable op review anybody know how much does cialis cost at walgreens lasix water pill where can i buy in england cialis 5 mg precios de cialis generico metronidazole price walgreens dexamethasone in nose does topamax cause ringing in the ears uses for cefdinir 250 mg caverta generic viagra china us best fake viagra ring lisinopril generic or name brand cialis comprar costo del medicamento priligy en mexico spironolactone dose in heart failure viagra across border in usa how much ibuprofen is safe long term where do i buy viagra in naproxen and swelling in knee is there a generic form of strattera strattera kapsül 10 mg 2.5 mg prednisone daily can metoprolol 25 mg will kill you lamisil 250 mg tablet fiyati does ampicillin have sulfa in it ovral contraceptive pills in india how much does cialis cost per pill cvs are macrobid antibiotics safe during pregnancy is viagra really needed online voltaren generic drug rovex nexium reels reviews zovirax comprimido comprar dosage of diflucan in yeast infection buy cheap 20 mg lisinopril fast lexapro generic cost at walmart buy tamoxifen online no prescription ibuprofen age to buy uk aripiprazole discount can you die from 200 mg of benadryl amoxicillin 500 mg untuk when can cialis become generic can lisinopril 40 mg be cut in half keflex 500 mg def50 nebenwirkungen von clopidogrel 75 mg purchase zyban guercmorteo taking 30 mg of prednisone for 6 weeks acyclovir and penciclovir cream india metformin in treatment of gestational diabetes singulair 4 mg dosis what is a safe amount of naproxen to take allegra substitute over counter claritin user review clomiphene citrate mode of action in urdu.com fluconazole dosage in tinea capitis empresas que realizan actos de comercio what is the cost of zyban price of acyclovir in greece panadol safe take while pregnant lumont montelukast 4mg price preis xenical bestellen can i cut zyrtec in half kamagra uk diazepam suprax 400 mg prospect azithromycin in h pylori azathioprine brands generic lexapro made premarin 0.625 mg tablets propecia cost for generic panadol cold price price zithromax liquid for cats is viagra legal in japan clonidine name in mexico cheap viagra rx buying viagra online with a mastercard how long is it safe to stay on zoloft walgreens lamisil price the maximum dose of cialis and viagra that is safe ibuprofen side effects uk how many mgs are the pink nolvadex seroquel 100 mg daily coumadin orders estrace baownbeuv australia how many mg can i take for cialis prednisone taper schedule from 60 mgs how much does lexapro cost out of pocket is buying viagra on the street illegal is it safe to take lipitor cialis prices at shoppers drugmart in canada prices of nexium minocin 100 mg precio mexico clomid nolvadex buy azithromycin 500 brand name metoprolol orion 190 mg nizoral shampoo in nigeria price montelukast kastair 10 mg tablet phil metronidazole discus uk cut metoprolol er in half nexium 40 mg maag viagra available in dhaka order xenical online canadian resident the use of metronidazole in pregnancy disulfiram tqeovertoz for sale how much does generic viagra cost at walmart metoprolol acts on b1 receptors in the heart to phenazopyridine hydrochloride use in dogs is 10 mg of cialis the same as 10 mg of viagra how to buy viagran in lahore tadalafil 20 mg cut in half best dose amitriptyline ic cefuroxime axetil 500 mg 1000 mg ibuprofen too much best time of day to take evista is it kinnickee in the cialis commercial when will there be a generic for avodart ph cycle generic nolvadex what is the best site for viagra is it safe to take 1600 mg of skelaxin prevacid okay in pregnancy buy amoxicillin off the shelf zovirax ointment order safest website to buy viagra cialis generic identifier cialis patent india best foods with warfarin allegra cangelosi research documented in harmful algae viagra in india, delhi how much does viagra cost at shopko methotrexate price uae effects of 30 mg paxil can you buy generic viagra through pharmacy walkin 100 mg zoloft not working what is the brand name for permethrin sildenafil 100 mg haltbarkeit what is ropinirole 2 mg used for tomar viagra 25 mg prices for flovent inhaler is it legal to bring viagra into usa tadalafil tablets 10 mg side effects generic lamisil mexico order liquid arimidex simvastatin zocor cost edinburgh uk viagra search cialis charles albuterol inhalation solution cost can metronidazole treat entamoeba histolytica safely brand ibuprofen dissolves most quickly water effects of cephalexin in pregnant women purchase viagra without prescription is cialis safe to take with clonidine azithromycin ratiopharm 250 mg kalvop??llysteinen buy cialis on line from canada cialis soft tabs in ?sterreich olmesartan medoxomil 40 mg and amlodipine 5 mg viagra in ur system finasteride side effects india benadryl safe 4 month old best price cialis usa para que sirve el danazol de 200 mg acyclovir salep lengkap sale of doxycycline meclizine 25 mg tab side effects buying viagra on line is it safe zyprexa class action canada depakote ec 125 mg naproxen 375 over the counter reliable kamagra supplier uk obat alloris loratadine 10 mg where to buy levitra in cape town strattera reviews college students buying premarin canada 850 mg metformin twice a day is milk thistle safe to take with methotrexate how much is albuterol mdi cost adalat nasibov papers in soco virtual reality pixel vacanze a cipro in settembre overnight delivery zithromax comprar disulfiram espana buy sucralfate 1 gm cataflam cost bactrim acne treatment reviews viagra in my drink do you need prescription to buy viagra best viagra prices for 100 mg 150mg generic viagra fastest shipping foods rich in vitamin k warfarin 5 mg propecia descriptions why amitriptyline hydrochloride is used in urdu how long does luvox stay in your body medicament aldactone 75 mg how to wean off metoprolol 50 mg tablet er ketoconazole liquid dogs chinese viagra over the counter london purchase clomid pct albuterol and pregnancy and safety paroxetine sale annual sales of actos is it safe to take adderall and prozac together pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate 40 mg vs nexium 20 mg is tenormin a brand name ukkamagra review liquid benadryl on skin buy allegra online canada 0.015 mg ethinyl estradiol how much does propecia cost in the uk will 5 mg cialis work first time can take amoxicillin 500 mg while breastfeeding prozac in bloodstream order renova from canada generic version ciprofloxacin viagra price shopper donde puedo comprar la cytotec en honduras generic levothyroxine fillers buy brandcialis usa online pharmacy give liquid benadryl to dogs should use generic viagra tacrolimus in sle allegra via research in bib by aidan budd data mining prednisone 20 mg 3 tabs daily for 7 days feldene 20 mg inyectable viagra online euro what is the brand name for albendazole sites buy viagra will taking 40 mg. of cialis harm me why price increase amitriptyline can levothyroxine cause ringing in the ears carvedilol api price in india many mg prednisone give dog difference between generic brand name effexor how to take liquid amoxicillin ciprofloxacina 750 mg cytotec side effect and how to counter it buy metformin and clomid canada online generic name of misoprostol cialis levitra staxyn and viagra prices buy 40 mg generic levitra online albuterol mdi inhaler for sale where to purchase viagra in person prozac lump in throat xenical uk sale lansoprazole peptac liquid buy promethazine with codeine syrup online atorvastatin 40 mg ndc plavix in elderly considerations ibuprofen 100 mg für kinder best time to take celexa to prevent insomnia finasteride average price buy valtrex online with no prescription best price propecia buy isotretinoin online uk omeprazole 20 mg rx rhinocort safe during breastfeeding generic drug zyrtec d can i take viagra with me to usa clomid supplements for sale nz can you drink alcohol omeprazole 20 mg allegra 120 mg dosagem best time for nexium i accidentally took 1600 mg of ibuprofen where can you buy viagra over the counter in singapore how often can i take 500 mg of naproxen comprar cialis generico online seguro discount coupons simvastatin methocarbamol baownbeuv for sale omeprazole arrow 10 mg lamisil ointment for ringworm buy it over the counter generic viagra safe or not glucophage in stool zovirax invisiseal patch review where to purchase permethrin spray kamagra 100 mg les effet levothyroxine rowcmoadreders cost allegra tabletas de 180 mg info on glass in generic lisinopril sumycin howdotofound price how long does antibiotic bactrim stay in your system cost of quetiapine uk maxalt europe flagyl metronidazole over counter what is abilify 2 mg used for herbal viagra women reviews nitroglycerin spray over the counter what is loratadine tablets 10 mg nizoral shampoo compare prices flagyl eciwlcodkedefe online theophylline brands in pakistan flagyl side effects blood in urine cialis super force review when can i see results from generic finasteride what is the best time to take cialis safely coming off paxil is it safe to take keflex if allergic to penicillin loratadine uk boots wo kamagra online kaufen diflucan price in philippines celebrex 100 mg para q sirve is it safe to take cialis for fun colchicine in gout treatment cetirizine brands uk lipitor 20 mg efeitos colaterais clomid use in women who ovulate what is fluconazole tablet 150 mg used for bystolic 5 mg side effect diflucan costs prednisone injection in nerve is seroquel safe for pregnant women is prevacid sold over the counter in canada sildenafil india 25 cents nexium over the counter substitute valtrex rezeptfrei kaufen aciclovir genfar 800 mg where do you buy viagra in south africa tapering prednisone at 5 mg bebes sanos despues de usar cytotec order xenical in india cash on delivery viagra canadian paypal ranitidine 150 mg for babies where to buy real viagra cialis online best pcos metformin hydrochloride 500 mg inderal 2.5 mg and pulse inhibitor rosuvastatin generic 40 mg orlistat 120 mg buy what is ciprofloxacin generic for custom heating specialist in richmond va remeron 30 mg yorum betamethasone in dogs como usar cytotec para aborto de siete semanas usage for ketoconazole cream and acne generic drug crestor clomiphene citrate 50 mg tab for men prednisone without prescription in america ciprofloxacin al 500 mg dosierung walgreens lipitor generic price azithromycin 1000 mg single dose side effects dose of prednisolone in infantile spasm phenergan in toddlers ho usato cialis rite aid brand allegra cyclophosphamide manufacturer in india strattera per paypal kaufen where can i buy real cipla viagra order cialis 10mg 30 tabs low dose naltrexone in india ibuprofen hatásmechanizmusa how many ibuprofen can put you in the hospital singulair costco 10mg counterfeit finasteride buy valtrex baownbeuv release date of plavix generic doxycycline hyclate para que se usa cost of viagra without insurance at rite aid skil reciprocating saw review excipient in amoxicillin is taking 3 dulcolax safe finasteride 5 mg does it work metoclopramide hydrochloride over counter price for terbinafine hcl 30 ccw reciprocity agreements between states buying tamoxifen online prednisone dose in urticaria nitroglycerin tablets cotton in bottle ibuprofen poisoning in dogs and cats omeprazole 20 mg dzialanie amoxicillin 3 capsule dose indian name estrace hereisthebestin discount cataflam aerosol como usar bystolic generic form metronidazole 250 mg dose men in black 3 viagra why did levitra change prices at walmart avodart 0.5 mg soft gel side effects is 10 mg accutane enough viagra australia delivery paypal tadalafil price walmart lisinopril 20 mg generico en mexico side effects micardis 20 mg metoprolol tartrate generic colchicine price in the philippines pfizer viagra cost in india meloxicam dose in dog metronidazole for bv in india metallic taste in mouth accutane how long does 2 g of azithromycin stay in your system trental 400 mg controindicazioni can you give a dog in pain ibuprofen where can one get dostinex drug in nigeria and prize lisinopril mg morning evening best time take kamagrafast customer reviews australia accutane para que serve o remedio meloxicam 0 5 mg cem products liquid cialis bupropion xl 300 mg zydus tetracycline safe plants generico de augmentin 12h medicina enalapril 20 mg Oceanic cable (Floyd Davidson; John Nagle; John R. Covert) Index Home About
Date: 18-Jul-1986 1346
From: covert%covert.DEC@decwrl.DEC.COM  (John R. Covert)
Subject: Just when AT&T thought it was safe to go back into the water

>From the Wall Street Journal, 26-June-86, included without permission.

Survey:  Sharks Prefer AT&T Lines By Wide Margin Over Sprint, MCI
------   ------ ------ ---- ----- -- ---- ------ ---- ------- ---

			By Bob Davis
	Staff Reporter of The Wall Street Journal

Just when American Telephone & Telegraph Co. thought it was safe to go
into the water, sharks began dining on its newest undersea
telephone-communications cable.

It seems the sharks just can't get enough of AT&T experimental
underwater fiber-optic telephone cable near the Canary Islands. They
munch on its plastic covering, gnaw on its electrical innards and
eventually short-circuit it-even though they may electrocute
themselves in the process.  At least, "we came up with some pretty
effective shark bait," says an AT&T spokeswoman.

At first, AT&T engineers didn't know what was causing the cable
failures.  Then they raised the cable and found rows of shark teeth
sticking out of it.  "Sharks will always be attracted to magnetic
fields," which the fiber-optic cables create, says James Barrett, an
AT&T engineering official.

		Transatlantic Race

That's the big problem because AT&T is hurrying to complete the
world's first transatlantic fiber-optic cable by 1988. The cable uses
glass fibers instead of copper wires to transmit conversation and
data.  AT&T's old cables generally are shark- free because they don't
emit much magnetism.  But a shark bite helped knock out the Canary
Island fiber-optic cable for a full week.

AT&T says it can combat the sharks by reinforcing stretches of the
cable with steel wire and quickly patching breaks that occur. But the
company's shark problem has attracted another kind of predator.

		Space Shark

Communications Satellite Corp. (Comsat) a Washington, D.C., satellite
company, is pressing Congress to spend $119 million next fiscal year
on a new satellite system that will compete with fiber optics.
Meanwhile, Comsat officials are turning AT&T fish difficulty to their
own advantage: Shark attacks "may cause a delay of six months to a
year," in laying AT&T's transatlantic cable, asserts John Evans, a
Comsat vice president.

AT&T denies any such delay.  And even Comsat's lobbyist, Thomas
Scully, doubts that Congress will swallow the fish story.

He reasons: "If I were at AT&T and I saw an article saying the biggest
problem facing fiber optics is that fish eat the cable, I'd say, "Boy,
the satellite people are desperate."

		-30-

Notes: The person from whom I originally received this article was
immediately sceptical of the reports of magnetic fields from fiber
optic cables.  But unlike short-haul terrestrial fiber cables, where
the fiber would not emit any fields, undersea cables must carry high
voltage power to the undersea repeaters, which would result in both
electric and magnetic fields around and along the cable.

The article is further misleading in stating that old cables are
shark-free because they don't emit much magnetism.  It appears that
the real reason here is more likely to be because the conventional
cables are a larger diameter which the sharks can't so easily get
their teeth around.

And finally, experiments have shown that sharks are attracted to
electrical fields which many of their prey emit.  There is little to
no data about magnetic fields and shark.  I have, however, read
articles about other animals using magnetic fields for navigation.

/john

From: nagle@netcom.com (John Nagle)
Subject: Re: AT&T Ship Sets Trans-Oceanic Cable Installation Record
Date: Mon, 11 May 92 07:48:04 GMT
Organization: Netcom - Online Communication Services  (408 241-9760 guest) 

dag@ossi.com (Darren Alex Griffiths) writes:

> Some of the things I'd be interesting in hearing about include how the
> cable is spliced together. I assume that the ship didn't have 3,250
> miles of continuous cable on a big spindle. 

       No, they actually do carry enough cable to do the whole job.
Cable is carried in big round holds, but they don't rotate; the cable
is pulled out layer by layer from the top, having previously been
carefully loaded in port.

       Splices between sections are done on shipboard when necessary.

       The cable isn't just dropped overboard; the ship tows a heavy
plow that makes a furrow and buries the cable, at least in areas where
other ships are likely to be dragging anchors.


John Nagle


From: floyd@hayes.ims.alaska.edu (Floyd Davidson)
Subject: Re: AT&T Ship Sets Trans-Oceanic Cable Installation Record
Organization: University of Alaska Institute of Marine Science
Date: Mon, 11 May 1992 01:47:06 GMT

In article <telecom12.378.10@eecs.nwu.edu> dag@ossi.com (Darren Alex
Griffiths) writes:

> questions.  If someone in the know can spend some time letting us know
> more details about the techniques used to lay trans-oceanic cables, or
> point to a good reference source, I'd appreciate it.

> Some of the things I'd be interesting in hearing about include how the
> cable is spliced together. I assume that the ship didn't have 3,250
> miles of continuous cable on a big spindle. Does another ship provide
> additional cable every mile or so?  How do they lay a cable part way?
> I assume that if it's half way across the Pacific they don't simply
> let it drop to the bottom and hope they find it again. Is it anchored
> to a buoy?  Finally, what if the cable develops problems; can they go
> down and fix it and is the topology of the ocean floor and the depth a
> serious concern?

I know just a little bit.  I've seen sample pieces of the North Pacifc
Fiber.  The topology is of considerble importance, and the differences
in types of cable are good indicators.  Some of the cable is as small
as about 1 inch in diameter (most of which is sheathing for protec-
tion).  It gets larger and larger depending on how much armor is added!
There are five or six different sizes in use.  At the point where it
comes on shore it is about five inches, and the added part is almost
all steel armor.  That portion is also buried.

The North Pacific Fiber is presently being repaired due to problems
just off the Oregon coast.  I could guess at various ways they might
locate the cable, but I really don't know what they do to find it.  I
do know that it is located and hauled up very quickly.  My
understanding of the current situation is that it is up on three
buoys, they have replaced one repeater and spliced in some new
cable ... and it was supposed to go on line Friday night but it did
not pass a 24 hour bit error rate test.


Floyd

From: nagle@netcom.com (John Nagle)
Subject: Re: Britain-Japan Fiber Cable
Organization: NETCOM On-line Communication Services (408 261-4700 guest)
Date: Thu, 29 Dec 1994 17:40:03 GMT

wrf@ecse.rpi.edu (Wm. Randolph U Franklin) writes:

> AT&T will build a cable from Britain to Japan for $1.2G.  It'll be
> 17,000 miles long, 5Gbps, and carry 320,000 "voice and other messages".  
> That looks like only 16Kbps per circuit (which looks low).  The
> current longest cable is a 9,000 mile one from France to Singapore,
> completed a year ago.

> Fun math: That works out to a capital cost per circuit of only $3750.
> Assume that a phone call from Britain to Japan costs $2/minute.  If
> all 320,000 channels were in continuous use, then the cable would be
> paid for in the first 31 hours.

> Alternatively, if we assumed that the cable is good for ten years,
> or 100,000 hours, then amortizing the capital cost would be three
> cents per hour, or $5e-4/minute.  This is a factor of 4,000 less
> than the price of the call.

      The numbers for the newer transantlatic cables look like that,
too. You really should be able to buy a full-time transatlantic
circuit for about $100/month, and at the rate cable is being laid, you
probably soon will.

      Not having to acquire property rights is a big win. Fortunately, 
the UN didn't think of this for the Law of the Sea conference.


John Nagle
      

Index Home About