vardenafil canada can ranitidine be used in pregnancy viagra in sri lanka pharmacy name lipitor dosage of 80 mg cataflam generico precordial pain what is the active ingredient in antivert alli orlistat 60 mg recall list how long is it safe to take avodart is doxycycline safe long term for pimples injectable ivermectin in horses omnicef user reviews membedakan acai berry scrub asli dan palsusa order zyloprim online can i get zovirax cream over the counter buy hoodia nz cost of finasteride 5 mg how much paracetamol and ibuprofen can i buy amlodipine 4 dollar list walmart solubility of ibuprofen in different ph discount zetia 10 mg imuran blood disorders sildenafil in deutschland precio cialis 5 mg 28 comprimidos mexico 20 mg lexapro and breastfeeding onde encontrar neozine 25 mg benadryl cost of viagra canada shoppers drug mart enrofloxacin prices fluconazole generico teutonic knights yarsagumba for sale in uk zithromax azithromycin sinusitis reviews atorvastatin dose in ckdm enalapril usar who edmarket viagra viagra generic online cheapest ibuprofen in the uk singulair cp 4 mg prix buy safe viagra can you cut diovan tablets in half concentration of paracetamol in panadol sinus can i buy viagra in tenerife what is the generic brand for permethrin generic viagra online uk next day delivery treatment for thrush in women diflucan and alcohol dbn gumtree viagra for sale how lexapro works in the brain amoxicillin change in urine color amoxil 500 mg ???? enteric vs safety coated aspirin c pass type as parameter generic plavix shaklee herb lax ingredients in aleve amoxicillin and clavulanic acid combination brand name how much price of viagra in india mascotas online cl venden reglan for dogs is there a cheaper alternative to asacol dioxaflex plus diclofenac pridinol usa zyprexa 10 mg ampolla de vater 150 mg topamax side effects thrombosis canada warfarin drug dialysis labetalol 100 mg iv que causa el aciclovir en el embarazo retail price of mircette clopidogrel bisulfate at walmart zyprexa medsafe 10 percent benzoyl peroxide canada can you buy something like viagra over the counter when does propecia generic clonidine in hypertensive crisis how many mg of requip to get high purinethol bestellen toronto gia thuoc klerimed 500 mg naproxen acyclovir price in pakistan lumia celebrex stays in system propavan 25 mg zoloft ramipril comp heumann 5mg 25 mg zoloft mini pill progesterone dose menopausal regular cialis vs generic best price pharmacy for propecia buy prednisone 2.5 online no prescription importing viagra into ireland tritace 2 5 mg tabletas digitalizadoras real estate license reciprocity states hawaii side effects of nifedipine er 90 mg coupon is there a generic diovan hct generic reciprocity rule for social work in florida apa itu augmentin 625 mg information portaria anvisa isotretinoina generic prozac image sildigra softgel kapseln 100 mg gabapentin buy flagyl syrup for humans spasfon phloroglucinol 80 mg posologie augmentin oberto pepperoni sticks ingredients in aleve is benadryl available in south africa tegretol review nimotop 30 mg dosis amoxicilina roxin 500 mg ciprofloxacin pidmanula viagra generic buy levetiracetam online pastillas orlistat genericos bioequivalentes pantoprazole over the counter equivalent to nasonex clomid cost drug ibuprofen 200 mg posologie du gabapentin 300 mg use ditropan prix tunisie amoxicillin 500 mg side effects dizziness and nausea zofran 4 mg oral dosage sertraline kaufen generic propecia canadian pharmacy clotrimazole cream safe use pregnancy amoxicillin for dogs buy online plavix generic images of valium actonel 35 mg 4 film tablet fiyat? benazepril cloridrato 5 mg prezzo oro posb mastercard daily limit of ibuprofen zithromax over counter singapore 80 mg lipitor thigh pain dients in nexium 24 hour thrombosis canada warfarin sodium can benadryl cause diarrhea in dogs switching brands synthroid jogo de la pela tadalafil 20 mg dosing flagyl in cats inderal la in pregnancy sildenafil neuraxpharm 100 mg filmtabletten erythromycin in der schwangerschaft forum spironolactone aldactone for sale retina specialists in atlanta ga proflox 500 mg amoxicillin dosage generic sinemet cr sepultures hommes celebrex generic name metformin mechanism of action review corroder can you purchase prevacid over the counter sildenafil malaysia price effects of intravitreal injection of tacrolimus dexamethasone in glandular fever 10 mg baclofen dosage amounts fluoxetine 20 mg image is there naproxen in advil cold and sinus ciprofloxacino 500 mg de bayer much celebrex safe human biochemistry reference ranges for progesterone erythromycin antibiotic shot in hip is it safe to take benadryl daily to sleep prevage elizabeth arden ingredients in aleve viagra in amerika kaufen dosage of ivermectin in humans viagra cialis online fast delivery to australia buy doxycycline online nz amoxicillin dosage in ear infection meloxicam for dogs 32 ml to tablespoon how much calcium is in lipitor pietro gubellini tenoretic generic levitra 20 mg cena romantica prozac 20 mg dosis discount prescription singulair generic cymbalta lawsuit settlement bedfordshire clanger ingredients in benadryl viagra safe with no xplode embonato de metformin 500 mg how many cialis 5 mg can i take a day zyban farmaco costochondritis bisoprolol nombre generico de medicamentos can you take 800 mg of ibuprofen otc flonase generic nasal spray buy acai berry in australia viagra london soho cosmetic case dimenhydrinate thailand visa pantip pantoprazole 40 mg precious memories tamoxifen 10mg uk vertex bula generico do viagra mcf7 tamoxifen cost is cipro safe for stage 3 kidney disease is escitalopram 10 mg like lorazepam linezolid infarmed genericos vitality works hoodia gordonii reviews amoxicillin pink liquid over counter venlafaxine retard 37.5 mg pch crestor when will it become generic cetirizine 10 mg dosis de diclofenaco adco atenolol 100mg canada s adalat papers in pediat nephrol gene raoul c hennekam fluticasone nasofan uk is benadryl safe for 8 month old donde comprar el cytotec prozac nation español online porque usar utrogestan progesterone 150 mg dose of wellbutrin paxil and alcohol safe herb viagra green box does it really work ramipril generico venezuela buy 5mg cialis in canada is amoxicillin safe to take in first trimester calcitriol nombre generico glymetrol ingredients in benadryl allopurinol dergboadre canada fluconazole 150 mg daily betamethasone dipropionate salicylic acid lotion india wellbutrin 75 mg a day felodipine 5 mg biverkningar levaxin costo de xenical en guatemala buy zithromax 1 gm single dose online were can i buy azithromycin best price for cetrizine generic zyrtec enalapril 1 mgml suspension low price atorvastatin side effects of benadryl overdose in dogs prednisolone 20 mg posologie amoxicilline how much does finasteride cost in uk augmentin 1000 mg spcollege buscopan hyoscine butylbromide tablets 10 mg prednisone abilify purchase online kamagra oral jelly srbija made in india metronidazole in hepatitis nexium over the counter versus prescription discount isotretinoin cost nhs professionals how long does 25 mg of meclizine last buspirone side effects ukm prednisolone dogs sale uk dexamethasone injection in ear side effects what is the difference in paxil and celexa tachipirina e augmentin in gravidanza beipackzettel medikament orlistat over the counter 500 mg aspirin dosage fosamax plus in sydney oxybutynin er 10 mg price candesartan stada kaufen generic viagra dose cefaclor 750mg generico de cialis cialis preise in österreich cialis generic cheapest price free shipping over the counter alternatives to doxycycline dapsone generic name cialis canada cost is it safe to take two zyrtec in one day renagel discount what is a generic name for flomax tetracycline for sale india minomycin chemist warehouse locations purana viagra review by women walgreens augmentin price pletal from canada how long do side effects from prednisone last in dogs ivermectin 200 milligram price fluoxetine 10 mg abnehmender quetiapine induced myoclonus in a young male patient do i have to have a prescription to buy viagra keflex 500 mg for acne doxycycline or zithromax in nigeria buletten im baclofen garen counters crystapen 1200 mg clindamycin esomeprazole generic ultrafarma rj best prices on prescription viagra fluoxetine dose in cats amoxicillin injection brand name cost of once daily valtrex tamsulosin otc uk side effects of clozapine in schizophrenia augmentin buy canada buy 2 ketoconazole cream omeprazole costco cost oxaprozin 600 mg vs naproxen express scripts crestor price being on accutane and being in the sun cetirizine 15 mg jolly rancher bites ingredients in aleve how many mg is otc benadryl purchase misoprostol bertibarots what is generic tadalafil bush s chili bean ingredients in benadryl losartan cost suspension comprare viagra pagamento contrassegno translation over the counter viagra in beijing clomiphene for women generic for sale philippines can zofran be purchased over the counter atorvastatin vs rosuvastatin safety solutions fioricet generic manufacturers of losartan zenical orlistat tablets in barcelona plavix 75 mg cena restaurant oxcarbazepine drug bank lisinopril trade name in egypt xenical 120 mg belgie webshop gravol ketorolac compatable in syringe captopril de 5 mg estradiol 300 pg ml clomid unprescribed sale uk is generic cialis as safe and effective as brand age limit to buy claritin i took a 125 mg of viagra and it didnt work 20 mg lexapro and wellbutrin atarax safe use during pregnancy naltrexone 30 mg generic of adalat costo evista tabletas paxil 40 mg ocd and depression st pauls fc artane generic viagra soft tabs uk ltd which is cheaper viagra or levitra flomax 0 4 mg twice a day does generic zoloft make you gain weight zyprexa costs azithromycin price in nigeria what is bta torino cipro low cost preço do medicamento nexium 40 mg ra specialist in montana allegra via articles bioinformatics in bib how long does inderal 20 mg last bisoprolol nombre generico y comercial viagra us compare prices orlistat online uk one n only colorfix ingredients in aleve sumatriptan generic brands of percocet where to buy acai juice in canada protonix 40 mg pantoprazole side effects canadian prices accutane price levaquin doxycycline 500 mg tablet prozac and how it works in the body is it safe to exercise while taking clomid carlo alberto re di cipro e di gerusalemme crestor generico do viagra 800 mg generic viagra metoprolol tartrate 50mg australia flag accutane stay in system generic alphagan p brimonidine tartrate eye drops celebrex pulled off the market zantac 150 inactive ingredients in aleve when is the best time to take valacyclovir buy betnovate ointment uk hydrochlorothiazide use in diabetics naproxen sodium 220 mg directions map claversal 500 mg bijsluiter nolvadex griseofulvin tqeovertoz price strattera 4 mg depakote bipolar disorder dosage naproxen in equines what is fluoxetine hcl 40 mg price flagyl 250mg viagra usage tips lamotrigine 100 mg oral tablet is prednisone sold over the counter kamagra oral jelly generic viagra 50 mg prednisone poison ivy not working plus 4000 mg ibuprofen paxil cr 25 mg para que sirve azelastine hcl prices i am on warfarin and have blood in my urine valisanbe 5 mg obat apa piroxicam ampicillin 500 mg adalah chocolate efek samping aldactone 25 mg discontinuing long term prednisone use in dogs diphenhydramine 25 mg dose sildenafil x 50 mg is it safe to mix zyrtec and benadryl prednisolone acetate 1 coupons for walmart were to buy cheap viagra tablets joseph c allegra papers karen huff in cancer hormone pravastatin 80 mg espanol hydroxyzine hcl 25 mg glenmark tenormin 25 mg daily oxybutynin brand name in pakistan triluma 200 mg spironolactone and hair growth buy ibuprofen bulk medicamentos genericos clopidogrel hydrocodone acetaminophen 10 325 mg preço do remedio cymbalta 60 mg cat costa o pastila viagra in farmacie super viagra generic canada cialis in cape town over the counter price of levonorgestrel tablets aldactone guercmorteo online ems use of lasix in congestive heart black decker 7 2 volt 38 in cordless lithium drill citalopram 20 mg side effects when stopping online fast delivery cheap price viagra to buy colchicine for gout cost xalatan drops australia map frases de ciclistas celebrex generic name generic wellbutrin available acyclovir 400 mg buying novo prednisone to treat herniated discs in dogs wellbutrin xl 300 mg prices discount lamisil pashayev adalat papers in aict by eyubova svetlana colgate max fresh breath strips ingredients in aleve methotrexate brands in the philippines is it safe to take prevacid every day walmart pharmacy cost for synthroid ibuprofen strada 600 mg burgerfi onion rings ingredients in benadryl delzicol mesalamine cost generico de benzac fluconazole 150 mg treatment can metformin cause ringing in ears prilosec costco price synthroid 50 mcg ingredients in benadryl where can i buy cialis cheap in australia tab rosulip 20 mg prednisone ranitidine 150 mg bdtonline retinal hemorrhages in anastrozole users guide we needfemaleviagra inchennai india root vanish by kazumi ingredients in aleve irbesartan 300 mg film coated tablets android azithromycin 500 mg posologie doliprane prilosec 40 mg po bid stands duro tuss chesty forte ingredients in aleve reglan use in newborns can finasteride cause hair loss in a woman cardura xl 4 mg etken maddesi buy misoprostol united states plavix 75 mg au maroc lithium ion cells wholesale boutique how effective is levonorgestrel 1.5 mg leflunomide safety data sheet tadalafil cost walmart fluconazole 200 mg capsulas de alcachofa comprare xenical italia best route of administration for chloramphenicol how much does misoprostol cost without insurance thu?c meclizine 25 mg ma la xiang guo ingredients in benadryl cialis jamaica price arava buy online existe generico pariet 20mg dosage methotrexate 2.5 mg tablet price in india arava 20 mg tabletas de coco what is the cost of cialis 5mg daily norvasc 05 mg warfarin cost australia remeron 15 mg nebenwirkungen der levitra 20 mg comprim? pellicul long does cialis 20 mg work lexapro side effects lump in throat cuando usar lipitor norvasc 5 mg mayo clinic cvs cost bupropion hcl sr 150 mg tablet voltarol spray review how long can flagyl stay in your system obat diabetes metformin 250 mg best products generic of cialis como usar a romã como viagra generic zyloprim now nolva vs clomid pct review clarithromycin 500 mg indications for hemodialysis lithium sodium potassium order reactivity of alkali mesalamine medline india celexa reviews about weight synthroid generic walmart meloxicam 7.5 mg en español how to prepare 100 mgml ampicillin generic for lasix rerard dosage of albuterol in nebulizer to 20 month old bom jesus da penha mg cephalexin is lamictal safe during pregnancy soviet socialist realism poetry viagra generico na ultrafarma best for fever tylenol or ibuprofen diclofenac sr 75 mg dose buy diflucan 50 mg digoxin best time to take where can i purchace levitra over the counter low progesterone in luteal phase symptoms cramps vertrauenswürdig viagra kaufen knalpot 1200 mg ibuprofen clindamycin during labor and delivery lasix 40 mg pre roaccutane 20 mg ervaring effexor xr 150 mg starting dose of neurontin actos procesales subsanables strattera how many mg per pitt vibrox brand doxycycline 100mg ciprofloxacine eg 250 mg metronidazole dose in cattle moviprep generic substitute for crestor narendra modi in aap ki adalat on india tv generic zantac babies honey smacks generic lexapro como tomar singulair 10 mg hawaii real estate reciprocity cytotec sales glucovance price can i take liquid amoxicillin after the expiration date adrenals and high progesterone in men allegra tosetti abbigliamento online accutane pisces in ear headset review ciprofloxacin 500 mg used treat bv dexamethasone tablet philippine price crestor 20 mg compresse periactin online kopen belgie osteonecrosis of the jaw and fosamax generic priligy and viagra australia online what does a 5 mg lexapro look like novo prednisone 50 mg effet secondaire anesthesie cefixime in treatment of pid ponstel asus murahcheaponline mevacor nombre generico comprar viagra quilmes abra 100 equals viagra mg omeprazole for use in dogs ist cialis in österreich rezeptfrei lowest price effexor tadalafil compared with viagra which one best

The UKUSA Community

Canadian SIGINT activities take place, and can only be understood, in the wider context of the UKUSA SIGINT community, a secret SIGINT alliance that traces its origins to the Second World War.[1] The post-war continuation of this intelligence alliance was formalized in 1947 or 1948 with the signing of the still-secret UKUSA SIGINT co-operation and information-sharing agreement between the United Kingdom and the United States.

The member agencies of the UKUSA community include the Communications Security Establishment, the United States' National Security Agency (NSA), the United Kingdom's Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), Australia's Defence Signals Directorate (DSD), and New Zealand's Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB). A number of other countries' SIGINT agencies also participate in the UKUSA community, including those of Germany, Japan, Norway, South Korea, and Turkey. These countries are sometimes described as "Third Party" members of the agreement.[2] In addition, some countries, such as China, host UKUSA SIGINT stations or share SIGINT on a more limited basis.

Canada's membership in the SIGINT community began during the Second World War. Recognizing the intelligence benefits that Canada derived from that membership, the Canadian government decided early in 1946 that Canada should remain a member of the post-war intelligence community. On 28 March 1946, the Canadian Chiefs of Staff Committee "approved the continuation of Service intercept stations in peacetime"[3] and, on 13 April 1946, cabinet ministers Louis St. Laurent, C.D. Howe, and Douglas Abbott authorized the establishment of CBNRC.[4]

From the outset, it was understood that Canada's SIGINT activities would not operate independently, but would be integrated with and contribute to the activities of the wider community - "to ensure a fair contribution to the general pool of wireless intelligence set up between Canada and the other Empire countries and the United States" and "to cover the gaps in coverage by the Empire and US positions".[5]

In 1946-1947, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand (represented by Australia) created the Commonwealth SIGINT Organization, under the leadership of GCHQ.[6] At about the same time, in 1947 or 1948, the United Kingdom and the United States signed the UKUSA agreement (which, according to one source, "actually consists of a series of agreements, exchanges of letters and memoranda of common understandings").[7] These two developments marked the formal creation of the post-war SIGINT community.

Canada (like Australia and New Zealand) became part of the UKUSA community through its direct SIGINT relationships with the United Kingdom and, later, the United States, rather than through membership in the actual UKUSA agreement.[8]

A number of subsidiary agreements govern the nuts and bolts of the community's activities in areas such as the division of effort for SIGINT collection, security standards, and so on. The division of effort is reportedly specified in a protocol called the SIGINT Combined Operating List (SCOL).[9] According to Jeffrey Richelson and Desmond Ball, "the current division of responsibility allocates coverage of the eastern Indian Ocean and parts of South East Asia and the South-west Pacific to the DSD; Africa and the Soviet Union east of the Urals to the GCHQ; the northern USSR and parts of Europe to the Canadian CSE; a small portion of the South-west Pacific to the New Zealand GCSB; and all the remaining areas of interest to the NSA and its component service agencies." As Richelson and Ball have noted, "the geographical division of the world is, in practice, of course not as clear cut as this."[10] NSA dominates the job of SIGINT collection on the former Soviet Union, for example. Nonetheless, CSE's contribution to the collection and analysis of SIGINT concerning the former Soviet Union remains important.

Security standards and procedures reportedly are specified "by a series of 'International Regulations on SIGINT,' generally referred to as IRSIGs, and a series of 'COMINT Security Regulations,' which together prescribe security procedures, including methods of personnel indoctrination, to which the participating governments have agreed. Both the IRSIGs and the COMINT Security Regulations are quite voluminous; they are regularly updated and are usually kept in large loose-leaf binders."[11]

Among these security procedures are standardized codewords for the designation and protection of SIGINT products. "UMBRA is the successor to DINAR and TRINE as the compartment with the most sensitive SI [Special Intelligence, i.e., signals intelligence] material. Less sensitive is the SPOKE compartment, which might contain information from intercepts of PLO communications. Least sensitive is the information in the MORAY compartment." There are also SIGINT subcategories with their own codeword designators. The general category for SIGINT concerning the Soviet Union, for example, was GAMMA. There are also subcategories within the subcategories: "Thus, a document might bear the classification TOP SECRET UMBRA GAMMA GYRO."[12] Special security clearances are required to gain access to this material.

In Canada, general access to SIGINT information or material requires a Top Secret-Special Access clearance. CSE is responsible for "approving the allocation of positions requiring special access (SA) to signals intelligence information and material, and maintaining the inventory of personnel cleared for access to such information and material".[13]

CANUSA Agreement

In addition to the general UKUSA community SIGINT agreements, Canada has bilateral SIGINT agreements with the United Kingdom and the United States. Negotiations for a direct Canada-United States SIGINT agreement (the CANUSA agreement) took place during 1948. According to a US Air Force memorandum that describes a draft version of the agreement, the CANUSA agreement is modelled at least in part on the UK-US BRUSA agreement and governs Canada-US co-operation on Communications Intelligence, which, for the agreement's purposes, is "understood to comprise all processes involved in the collection, production and dissemination of information derived from the communications of countries other than the U.S.A., the British Empire, and the British Commonwealth of Nations." According to the memorandum, the agreement provides for the exchange of COMINT information "on the request of each authority to meet the requirements of the COMINT centers for assistance in the efficient discharge of their mutually agreed-upon COMINT activities and undertakings" and "on a 'need to know' basis as determined by the originating authority." It also provides for the exchange of COMINT liaison officers between Canada and the United States.[14] The signing of the final version of the CANUSA agreement probably took place in 1949.[15] By mid-1949 or early 1950, Robert S. McLaren, one of Canada's original cryptanalysts, had become CBNRC's first SIGINT liaison officer to the United States.

Another Canada-United States SIGINT agreement was signed in 1950, establishing the joint Royal Canadian Navy-United States Navy high- frequency direction-finding net.[16] It is likely that dozens of lesser bilateral agreements and memoranda of understanding also exist.

Canada continues to maintain SIGINT liaison officers at NSA and GCHQ. There are also a number of other direct contacts between the organizations. CSE members often take SIGINT courses offered by NSA and GCHQ, for example, and some CSE members spend time working at NSA and GCHQ as "integrated members". Similar arrangements exist with other members of the SIGINT community. Recently, for example, members of New Zealand's GCSB have begun serving postings at CSE.


[1] UK-US SIGINT co-operation began in 1940 and was formalized on 17 May 1943 with the conclusion of the still-secret, and possibly still-active, BRUSA COMINT agreement (Desmond Ball and Jeffrey Richelson, The Ties That Bind: Intelligence Cooperation Between the UKUSA Countries, Allen and Unwin, 1985, pp. 137-8.).

[2] Jeffrey Richelson, The U.S. Intelligence Community (second edition), Ballinger, 1989, p. 283.

[3] Kevin O'Neill, ed., History of CBNRC, 1987, Chapter 2, p. 3, released in severed form under Access to Information Act. The same source states that the Chiefs of Staff Committee had already approved the continuation of "SIGINT activities in peacetime" once before, in September 1945. The War Diaries of the Royal Canadian Corps of Signals Special Wireless Stations also provide evidence that at least some preliminary approval of post-war activities had taken place before March 1946. For example, a new "Alford cage" antenna system was constructed and put into service at Grande Prairie in February 1946 (War Diary: No. 2 Special Wireless Station, entry for 14 February 1946, Canadian Forces Communications and Electronics Museum collection).

[4] History of CBNRC, Chapter 1, p. 1.

[5] Wesley Wark, "Cryptographic Innocence: The Origins of Signals Intelligence in Canada in the Second World War," Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 22 (1987), p. 659.

[6] The Ties That Bind, pp. 142-143; J.L. Granatstein and David Stafford, Spy Wars: Espionage and Canada from Gouzenko to Glasnost, Key Porter, 1990, p. 45; Christopher Andrew, "The Growth of the Australian Intelligence Community and the Anglo-American Connection," Intelligence and National Security, April 1989, pp. 221-255.

[7] The Ties That Bind, p. 142. Although most sources date the UKUSA agreement to 1947, recently some sources have suggested that it actually dates from 1948. See, for example, "The Growth of the Australian Intelligence Community and the Anglo-American Connection," pp. 223-224, and Peter Wright, Spycatcher: The Candid Autobiography of a Senior Intelligence Officer, Stoddart, 1987.

[8] Some sources list Canada as a "Second Party" to the agreement (see, for example, The U.S. Intelligence Community, p. 267.). Apparently, however, Canada is not a signatory of the UKUSA agreement itself. Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau stated this explicitly in 1974 (House of Commons Debates, 10 January 1974, p. 9227.). Former CSE Chief Kevin O'Neill told author James Littleton that "the UKUSA agreements directly link the United Kingdom and the United States. Canada is involved in a less formal way. The agreements to which Canada is a party do not exist on paper. There is no one document spelling out their terms. But they do nonetheless exist as an understanding among the SIGINT organizations of the five English-speaking nations." (James Littleton, Target Nation: Canada and the Western Intelligence Network, Lester and Orpen Dennys, 1986, p. 95.) Canadian participation in the broader UKUSA alliance was confirmed by the Hon. C.M. (Bud) Drury in 1975 (C.M. Drury, testimony, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence of the Standing Committee on Miscellaneous Estimates, 24 March 1975, p. 18:20.). In addition, in 1995, the Deputy Clerk, Security and Intelligence, formally confirmed that "Canada collaborates with some of its closest and long-standing allies in the exchange of foreign intelligence... These countries and the responsible agencies in each are the U.S. (National Security Agency), the U.K. (Government Communications Headquarters), Australia (Defence Signals Directorate), and New Zealand (Government Communications Security Branch [sic])." (Statement by Deputy Clerk, Security and Intelligence, to Standing Committee on National Defence and Veterans Affairs, 2 May 1995.)

[9] Seymour Hersh, "The Target Is Destroyed": What Really Happened to Flight 007 and What America Knew About It, Vintage, 1987, originally published by Random House (1986), p. 67n.

[10] The Ties That Bind, p. 143. CSE's role has been confirmed by former SRS member Larry Clark: "We monitor all Communist bloc nations but we are primarily tasked with monitoring the U.S.S.R. -- and within that we focus on the northern part" (quoted in "Our electronic spying hides behind cover stories," Bob Gilmour, Edmonton Journal, 26 October 1982, p. A2.). See also "The Target is Destroyed", p. 67n, and John Sawatsky, Men in the Shadows: The RCMP Security Service, Doubleday Canada, 1980, p. 9n.

[11] The Ties That Bind, p. 144.

[12] The U.S. Intelligence Community , p. 417.

[13] Security (Canada Communication Group - Publishing cat. no. BT52-6/3), Treasury Board, 1991, pp. 5-6.

[14] Brig. Gen. Walter Agee, USAF, Acting Deputy Director of Intelligence, "Memorandum for the Coordinator of Joint Operations: Proposed U.S.-Canadian Agreement," 7 June 1948. It seems likely that these elements were not significantly changed in the final version of the agreement.

[15] David J. Bercuson and J.L. Granatstein, The Dictionary of Canadian Military History, Oxford University Press, 1992, p. 43. A "Security Agreement between Canada and the United States of America", signed 15 September 1950, may have been related to the CANUSA agreement or to arrangements arising from it, however (see The U.S. Intelligence Community, p. 273.).

[16] CWO D. Cox, "Gander, Newfoundland, and Canadian Forces Station Gander," Communications and Electronics Newsletter, Canadian Forces Communication Command, 1975, p. 14.

Advanced TSCM Signals Detection and Analysis
TSCM - Sweeping the Spectrum for Eavesdropping Devices

Any comments or questions regarding this specific page?

Please feel free to sign our Guest Book

E-mail Address  
Web Page
Street Address
City (optional) State Zip
Country (optional)
Phone (optional)
How did you hear about this site or page?
Do you need to have a bug sweep or other TSCM service performed?
Do you need any TSCM equipment?

| Home | What is TSCM | Types of Bugs | Warning Signs You're Bugged |
| How To Behave if Bugged | TSCM Threat Levels | How To Engage a TSCM Firm |
| Qualifications | TSCM Protocol | Bug Frequencies | Phone Taps and Bugging |
| Signal Analysis | TDR Analysis | TDR Tutorial | Wiretapping | Training | Tools |
| Equipment | OSC-5000 | Kaiser | Riser Bond | Avcom | Search Rcvrs |
| Outside Links | Recommended TSCM Books | TSCM Reference Library |
| Recommended U.S. TSCM Firms | TSCM-L Mailing List |


    To be contacted for a confidential consultation
    please E-mail:

    or send a letter via US Mail to:
    James M. Atkinson
    Granite Island Group
    127 Eastern Avenue #291
    Gloucester, MA 01931-8008

    or call:
    Telephone: (978) 546-3803 / Fax: (978) 546-9467


Copyright ©2002, Granite Island Group