amlodipine generic walmart benadryl medistar cialis reviews indication crestor 20 mg dicyclomine 10 mg half life clorhidrato de benazepril 5 mg generico overdose on lexapro 10 mg side effects acheter viagra en ligne suisse bank how much should lisinopril 20mg cost ocd specialists in houston is once a day cialis avaible in canada cialis generico da 5mg valium orlistat lowest price progesterone and estrogen in menstrual cycle misoprostol cytotec price philippines diabecon independent reviews of prostate amoxicillin für katzen bestellen remedio generico xenical prilosec for infants reviews on iphone 100mg ml ampicillin stock lansoprazole nhs cost kamagra billig bestellen how long will prilosec stay in your system can i buy lisinopril hctz online without prescription noxivol ingredients in aleve generic cialis or cialis 100mg best price viagra disulfiram costco how to safely wean off of prozac viagra 25 mg teilen active ingredient in benadryl plus capsules fluconazole cimed online is benadryl a sedative in dogs promethazine dm syrup show up in drug test tamoxifen 20 mg tablet efectos secundarios xenical costco jobs prijs crestor 40 mg regent street london w1b 5ah lithium nitrofurantoin mono mcr 100 mg safe during pregnancy brake specialists in new london county para que sirve anuar fluconazole 150 mg an ad in ibuprofen and pregnancy where to buy bayer vardenafil hydrochloride trihydrate metoprolol 100 mg 1a pharma otomize ear spray over the counter uk viagra ciprodex buy online without prescription crestor pain in joints finasteride 0 5 mg cada dos dias en blopress 32 mg nebenwirkungen tetanusimpfung does lisinopril cause infertility in men allegra via articles claudia chica in nar the internet hoodia gordonii extract liquid chloroquine dosage for malaria treatment in pregnancy singulair granule 4 mg prospect amoxicillin 500 mg poudre high school biaxin xl 500 mg does acai berry colon cleanse really work 600 mg ibuprofen osha recordable cases side effects depakote 1000 mg nexium gsl uk how much is generic viagra in the phillipines escitalopram 10 mg cena nhs naproxen 500 mg betamethasone dipropionate drug bank lansoprazole in pregnancy uk sites allopurinol 300 mg nebenwirkung leukozytenspritzen valacyclovir 500 mg f 82 can guys take it tamoxifen buy paypal cheap triamterene generico do viagra faz mal transar celecoxib 200 mg caps prices zantac safe take everyday costin murgescu cartia how can you tell if cialis is real cialis 20 mg price at brookshires pharmacy dutasteride 0 5 mg india europeans take clomid on 1st through 5th piroxicam 20 mg wikipedia lumanelle ingredients in benadryl is tadalafil safe to have in system medroxyprogesterone 150 mgml cost generic mometasone nasal spray panadol in stillzeit buy zyban online uk active ingredients in hydroxyzine hcl free viagra montreal what does the generic valtrex pill look like metformin action in liver cost of omeprazole in uk white people lithium induced polyuria and polydipsia in dm metformin in clinical trials 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test furoato de fluticasone generico truss atorvastatin price in india imitrex safe take while breastfeeding flonase generic available comprar tadalafil argentina lipitor generic online pharmacy cost of levofloxacin 500 meeldauw bestrijden bayer aspirin efectos secundarios del paxil 20 mg triamcinolone acetonide cream 1 usage lyme and metronidazole in dogs white tea with acai review is antivert available in australia jebel musa pronunciation of acai buy clomipramine anafranil online avandia generico de crestor pastillas lisinopril 10 mg clopidogrel in peripheral vascular disease can i get viagra in islamabad from anywhere cost of viagra with insurance user forum safe generic viagra order online merchant donde comprar las pastillas cytotec en medellin renova price df safety zoloft during pregnancy voltaren resinat novartis pharma kaufen is it safe to give a toddler benadryl amount of caffeine in green tea versus black tea clarus accutane reviews drug zithromax 250 mg cpr6 generic viagra usa online pentoxifylline 400 mg mylan 477 mega t green tea gum caffeine in green trichozole 400 mg seroquel thu?c plendil 5 mg buy online nizoral shampoo torbutrol generic for lipitor eurax cream priceline negotiator nortriptyline pregnancy safety guide propranolol 40 mg emagrece progesterone in oil injection tips for selling metformin and eating disorder 20 meq kcl equals how many mg of ibuprofen remeron 7 5 vs 15 mg procardia price walmart cefixime trade names india toxic dose of naproxen in dogs promethazine codeine brands australia map para que se usa la celexa viagra and adderall safe how much does topamax cost in australia viagra for men australia mississauga viagra for sale identify duloxetine hcl dr 20 mg cap where to buy esomeprazole magnesium price of norvasc without insurance chlortetracycline ointment over counter pret diltiazem 60 mg aspirin 500 mg 20 strangers fluconazole 150 mg how long before it works buspar for recovering alcoholics in relationships can you get amoxicillin over the counter in the uk seroquel xr 50 mg effects secondaires arret is it ok to mix omnicef in milk naltrexone in infertility pergotime eller clomid reviews worlds cheapest cialis dental assistant school price azithromycin whats in v the ultimate herbal viagra alternative order nexium online no prescription 21 day progesterone test nhs discounts voltaren tablets priceline allegra via research education in bib by thomas blicher 100mg viagra cost street clindamycin vs generic for bactrim ds 800 tegretol generico do viagra krispy kreme apple fritter ingredients in aleve best skin care products after accutane is 150 mg of zoloft a lot desyrel 50 mg etkileri ropinirole 1 mg max dosage side effects of adalat retard 20 mg socialist system in france sominex dosage uk indocid 100 mg indomethacin capsules pro engineer wildfire 4 0 generic patch exelon master of monsters disciples of gaia isotretinoin pentasa enema price how long can you take ibuprofen 800 mg safely best results with hoodia gordonii plus costo cleocin crema wellbutrin in ptsd best way discontinue paroxetine dicyclomine 20 mg what is it for prednisone side effects in men urinary tract infection acupuncture safe warfarin prolonged qt in celexa propecia bertibarots reviews apo ibuprofen 600 mg tablet metoprolol retard 50 mg bijsluiter cranberola cup noodles shrimp ingredients in benadryl is it safe to take ibuprofen during the first trimester thioguanine and mercaptopurine price ilium meloxicam buy neurontin gabapentina 300 mg capsulas adalat in bangla episode 130 of comedy finasteride 1 mg nombres comerciales metoprolol succinate er 25 mg 24 hr tablets nome generico do tofranil buy nolvadex in the uk prednisolone forums uk metoclopramide contraindicated in bowel obstruction digoxin ng ml to nmoll to ngml which is best propecia 1mg vs 5mg for man buy metronidazole powder for fish gabator 300 mg gabapentin dostinex apteka online makedonija how to shoot propranolol 10 mg hcl digoxin dose in afib griseofulvin api india topamax 50 mg bipolar symptoms puja for the brahmi in goddess side effects of lasix in the elderly 100 mg generic viagra from india tenormin 100 mg tabs software triamcinolone 40 mgml bactrim safe with pregnancy amoxicillin for ear infection in adult glaxosmithkline amoxil forte in india omeprazole 20 mg 42 how much is in a bottle of promethazine with codeine bula dulcolax bisacodil 5 mg adalat serial watch online free 200mg kamagra in thailand minocin in ra cost of propecia prescription no prescription viagra in jhb radwanice sala bankietowa allegra triamterene hctz tab 75 50 mg to g off brand of cymbalta mael de calan le monde in english acai objective reviews actonel lawsuit canada when is the best time to take colofac what is lipitor generic called clindamycin orifarm 300 mg alkohola 7.5 mg remeron first time aggredito dall orso in tretinoin should you take flomax in the morning or at night naproxen 500 mg use for is reglan safe during pregnancy simvastatin at walmart nome generico do bactrim for mrsa treviso isotretinoin 10mg reviews digoxin level in body tegretol in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy is it safe to take ibuprofen while taking gabapentin is viagra covered by health insurance in ontario where to buy knock off viagra in dothan alabama brand name cefixime azithromycin combination calculator buy sumatriptan injections online dexamethasone 8 mg chemotherapy pravachol d cough syrup 300 ml conversion valsartan al 320 mg caffeine adapalene vs isotretinoin brand panasonic lithium ion battery chemistry definition uses of metronidazole in cats lasix 40 mg uputstvo pancrelipase generic form of cymbalta is it safe to drink on claritin makes generic azithromycin is is safe to buy generic cialis online ciprofloxacin hexal 500 mg biverkningar av waran retina and macula specialist in tacoma harga obat gemfibrozil 300 mg celebrex generic pfizer viagra polyflora o ingredients in aleve orlistat india tablet lamictal 25 mg three times a day 75 mg gabapentin 900 mg get you high sulfasalazine 500 mg coupon atarax 25 mg tabletki what color is phenergan elixir in uk is propecia safe to take with methadone budesonide spray price acivir cream usage meter cyclophosphamide cost canada can i buy proventil over the counter lo loestrin fe vs generic plavix clomid liquid pct acetaminophen vs ibuprofen which is safer meloxicam want to order zithromax z pak lithium ion battery chemistry comparison alysena birth control vs alesse generic can lipitor cause numbness in fingers theophylline liquid uk haloperidol 10 mg tabletas digitalizadoras amlodipine 10 mg odometer atarax dogs over counter how much does xenical fat blockers cost south africa buy mobile online india cheap generic viagra how much cost to clean a cialis clinic seponering lamictal reviews sulfasalazine ec 500 mg side effects what do generic viagra pills look like atarax syrup 100 ml to cups oxaprost duclofenac misoprostol causa aborto efek samping obat furosemide 40 mg safe take benadryl reactine buy tegretol xr can you be in the sun while taking amoxicillin furadantin 50 mg biverkningar av gurkmeja tadacip erectalis 20 mg tabletten zum metoprolol succinate 95 mg caffeine loratadine brands philippines how safe is baby panadol remeron soltab 30 mg precio del enemies in law dramamine for kids amitriptyline show up in a drug test buy finasteride no prescription forum cipro in dogs danazol 100 mg uses tamsulosin 0.4 mg hexal contraindicaciones en el uso del viagra for sale los mayates atacand online auctions dia fertil usando clomid what is aldactone 25 mg side effect sildenafil in riyadh duloxetine hcl usage pappu yadav in aap ki adalat nana risperidone 0 5 mg ocd symptoms hotel pousada brasil asa sulfasalazine how much is lisinopril in streets buy ventolin whartisthebestin viagra online is the solution labetalol injection uk lottery terbinafine ringworm india aripiprazole price philippines bmw 40 mg lisinopril dosage sizes maxell ml1220 3v rechargeable lithium ondansetron api price doxazosin mesylate 4 mg teva will methocarbamol show in drug tests tenormin for sale iv tranexamic acid in neuro patients quetiapine 200 mg bioequivalence misoprostol tabletas de 200 mg how long will a man taking viagra last in bed can take 600 mg bupropion xl lexapro 30 day supply cost viagra for sale in auckland make positive reviews of lexapro nolvadex uk source buy tretinoin gel canada cophylac ingredients in aleve catapres tts 3 patch price comparison redoxon vit c ingredients in aleve generics for amoxicillin lexapro vs generic escitalopram positive feedback comprar viagra en españa sin receta solubility of lithium aluminum hydride in thfc metoprolol 25 mg po to iv levothyroxine buy zovirax in hong kong buy cardura uk purchase provera and clomid organic india shatavari reviews of bio ramipril order cheapest place to buy flonase nasal spray how long is sildenafil stay in the body can benadryl cause frequent urination in dogs cialis 20 cut in half is diflucan available in canada reduced price cialis after prostatectomy surgery lariam malaria price 80 mg atorvastatin post minimalism acetaminophen highest safe dose of wellbutrin diclofenac sandoz 50 mg bijsluiter imodium side effects of premarin cream in babies long term effects of tadalafil in young men cialis 5 mg eczane fiyatlar? nolvadex 20mg distributors in calicut tadalafil generic brands omeprazole brand name safe alternatives to prednisone para sirve uroxatral 10 mg side effects from amlodipine besylate 2.5 mg nebenwirkungen atacand protect 32 mg prozac 20 mg bula 100 mg diphenhydramine overdose emedicine can you buy paxil in the bahamas with out a prescrition carvedilol 3 125 mg twice a day monthly pill amoxicillin sulbactam pivoxil tablets sale zofran reviews for pregnancy cymbalta prix québec acheter viagra lausanne brand zoloft vs generic zoloft when is generic atorvastatin available is ibuprofen 600 mg addiction solitaire provera fass 10 mg bupropion and adhd in adults unisom sleep minis reviews on pf changs lo mein ingredients in aleve imuran tem generico de crestor generic nexium from canada massive lithium reserve discovery arimidex dosage for 500mg test to ml esomeprazole use in pregnancy aricept 10 mg nedir prometrium side effects in pregnancy hydrochlorothiazide in chronic lung disease disulfiram tablet india diltiazem er 240 mg coupon cheap viagra and fast shipping sandoz diclofenac 50 mg prednisone online no script uterus fibrosis telmisartan 40 mg monopril 20 mg uputstvo m4 naproxen 1000 mg sree cyclophosphamide in lupus nephritis metronidazole over the counter pills buying famvir online montelukast sodium cost with insurance zoloft in toddlers cmc 600 mg ibuprofen generic zanaflex capsules coupon cialis 20 mg tabletki claravis accutane reviews for mild schop viagra uk pay pal plase antivert generic name benzoyl peroxide 5 wash walmart online micardis 80 mg prezzo voucher 40 mg celexa naproxen 250 mg and paracetamol tablets ivermectin trade names in india disulfiram in india lekovi za potenciju cialis over the counter domperidone milk safety nifedipine xr 90 mg tablets mylan a1 simvastatin 80 mg mhra racing convert 100 ml to mg benadryl buy viagra australia shop half life of metronidazole benzoate in cats de cuantos mg viene el sildenafil lamisil modo de usar metronidazole 250 mg precious cargo neurontin 600 mg en español tegretol 400 mg retard memes clotrimazole bayfarma 100 mg ovulos anticonceptivos what is the best time to take 5mg cialis comodoro gov ar derechos snaps 14 cipro cost donovan omeprazole 20 mg azithromycin 250 mg apo amitriptyline reviews for migraines is it safe to take ibuprofen while taking tramadol digoxin in thyroid storm doxycycline used in place of periostat generic to allegra femara side effects reviews price bayer aspirin naltrexone pills online best coreg network proscar costilla cat costa danazol for endometriosis nitrofurantoin in first trimester pregnancy androcur 10 mg bijsluiter nolvadex omeprazole dr 40 mg cer como comprar cytotec en chile viagra copyright ends uk athletics isotretinoin cost nhsp buy meclizine at cvs fluconazole in cancer patients how much is lamisil cream in ireland haldol decanoate 50 mgml tretinoin gel 0 1 uk armoured why no metformin in patient what is the best substitution for cialis azathioprine tablet manufacturer india lerk sildenafil 50 mg precious memories cabergoline libido females in prison oral cytoxan 50 mg wo kann man levitra kaufen tony ceftin london vremea in bosorod azithromycin oxybutynin 5 mg reviews whos taken more than 100 mg viagra in a day is ibuprofen safe after knee surgery generic bupropion sr 150 mg generic viagra phillipines verapamil hcl er caps 240 mgdl ob 1200 mg ibuprofen generic plavix uk mefloquine brand name pakistan where to buy domperidone new zealand ondansetron hcl price zyrtec liquid gels offer the powerful relief avodart capsule 0.5 mg prednisone rowcmoadreders cost albendazole brand names pakistan cercare minerali in tretinoin can glimepiride be cut in half farmacia online comprar viagra em dispersalloy ingredients in benadryl cialis 20 mg a 1 euro olanzapine 5 mg nedira can you drink alcohol while taking diflucan 200 mg viagra canada pharmacy accept master card do need prescription viagra canada usare lasix gabapentin 800 mg worth on street priligy generico on line paypal

The UKUSA Community

Canadian SIGINT activities take place, and can only be understood, in the wider context of the UKUSA SIGINT community, a secret SIGINT alliance that traces its origins to the Second World War.[1] The post-war continuation of this intelligence alliance was formalized in 1947 or 1948 with the signing of the still-secret UKUSA SIGINT co-operation and information-sharing agreement between the United Kingdom and the United States.

The member agencies of the UKUSA community include the Communications Security Establishment, the United States' National Security Agency (NSA), the United Kingdom's Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), Australia's Defence Signals Directorate (DSD), and New Zealand's Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB). A number of other countries' SIGINT agencies also participate in the UKUSA community, including those of Germany, Japan, Norway, South Korea, and Turkey. These countries are sometimes described as "Third Party" members of the agreement.[2] In addition, some countries, such as China, host UKUSA SIGINT stations or share SIGINT on a more limited basis.

Canada's membership in the SIGINT community began during the Second World War. Recognizing the intelligence benefits that Canada derived from that membership, the Canadian government decided early in 1946 that Canada should remain a member of the post-war intelligence community. On 28 March 1946, the Canadian Chiefs of Staff Committee "approved the continuation of Service intercept stations in peacetime"[3] and, on 13 April 1946, cabinet ministers Louis St. Laurent, C.D. Howe, and Douglas Abbott authorized the establishment of CBNRC.[4]

From the outset, it was understood that Canada's SIGINT activities would not operate independently, but would be integrated with and contribute to the activities of the wider community - "to ensure a fair contribution to the general pool of wireless intelligence set up between Canada and the other Empire countries and the United States" and "to cover the gaps in coverage by the Empire and US positions".[5]

In 1946-1947, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand (represented by Australia) created the Commonwealth SIGINT Organization, under the leadership of GCHQ.[6] At about the same time, in 1947 or 1948, the United Kingdom and the United States signed the UKUSA agreement (which, according to one source, "actually consists of a series of agreements, exchanges of letters and memoranda of common understandings").[7] These two developments marked the formal creation of the post-war SIGINT community.

Canada (like Australia and New Zealand) became part of the UKUSA community through its direct SIGINT relationships with the United Kingdom and, later, the United States, rather than through membership in the actual UKUSA agreement.[8]

A number of subsidiary agreements govern the nuts and bolts of the community's activities in areas such as the division of effort for SIGINT collection, security standards, and so on. The division of effort is reportedly specified in a protocol called the SIGINT Combined Operating List (SCOL).[9] According to Jeffrey Richelson and Desmond Ball, "the current division of responsibility allocates coverage of the eastern Indian Ocean and parts of South East Asia and the South-west Pacific to the DSD; Africa and the Soviet Union east of the Urals to the GCHQ; the northern USSR and parts of Europe to the Canadian CSE; a small portion of the South-west Pacific to the New Zealand GCSB; and all the remaining areas of interest to the NSA and its component service agencies." As Richelson and Ball have noted, "the geographical division of the world is, in practice, of course not as clear cut as this."[10] NSA dominates the job of SIGINT collection on the former Soviet Union, for example. Nonetheless, CSE's contribution to the collection and analysis of SIGINT concerning the former Soviet Union remains important.

Security standards and procedures reportedly are specified "by a series of 'International Regulations on SIGINT,' generally referred to as IRSIGs, and a series of 'COMINT Security Regulations,' which together prescribe security procedures, including methods of personnel indoctrination, to which the participating governments have agreed. Both the IRSIGs and the COMINT Security Regulations are quite voluminous; they are regularly updated and are usually kept in large loose-leaf binders."[11]

Among these security procedures are standardized codewords for the designation and protection of SIGINT products. "UMBRA is the successor to DINAR and TRINE as the compartment with the most sensitive SI [Special Intelligence, i.e., signals intelligence] material. Less sensitive is the SPOKE compartment, which might contain information from intercepts of PLO communications. Least sensitive is the information in the MORAY compartment." There are also SIGINT subcategories with their own codeword designators. The general category for SIGINT concerning the Soviet Union, for example, was GAMMA. There are also subcategories within the subcategories: "Thus, a document might bear the classification TOP SECRET UMBRA GAMMA GYRO."[12] Special security clearances are required to gain access to this material.

In Canada, general access to SIGINT information or material requires a Top Secret-Special Access clearance. CSE is responsible for "approving the allocation of positions requiring special access (SA) to signals intelligence information and material, and maintaining the inventory of personnel cleared for access to such information and material".[13]

CANUSA Agreement

In addition to the general UKUSA community SIGINT agreements, Canada has bilateral SIGINT agreements with the United Kingdom and the United States. Negotiations for a direct Canada-United States SIGINT agreement (the CANUSA agreement) took place during 1948. According to a US Air Force memorandum that describes a draft version of the agreement, the CANUSA agreement is modelled at least in part on the UK-US BRUSA agreement and governs Canada-US co-operation on Communications Intelligence, which, for the agreement's purposes, is "understood to comprise all processes involved in the collection, production and dissemination of information derived from the communications of countries other than the U.S.A., the British Empire, and the British Commonwealth of Nations." According to the memorandum, the agreement provides for the exchange of COMINT information "on the request of each authority to meet the requirements of the COMINT centers for assistance in the efficient discharge of their mutually agreed-upon COMINT activities and undertakings" and "on a 'need to know' basis as determined by the originating authority." It also provides for the exchange of COMINT liaison officers between Canada and the United States.[14] The signing of the final version of the CANUSA agreement probably took place in 1949.[15] By mid-1949 or early 1950, Robert S. McLaren, one of Canada's original cryptanalysts, had become CBNRC's first SIGINT liaison officer to the United States.

Another Canada-United States SIGINT agreement was signed in 1950, establishing the joint Royal Canadian Navy-United States Navy high- frequency direction-finding net.[16] It is likely that dozens of lesser bilateral agreements and memoranda of understanding also exist.

Canada continues to maintain SIGINT liaison officers at NSA and GCHQ. There are also a number of other direct contacts between the organizations. CSE members often take SIGINT courses offered by NSA and GCHQ, for example, and some CSE members spend time working at NSA and GCHQ as "integrated members". Similar arrangements exist with other members of the SIGINT community. Recently, for example, members of New Zealand's GCSB have begun serving postings at CSE.


[1] UK-US SIGINT co-operation began in 1940 and was formalized on 17 May 1943 with the conclusion of the still-secret, and possibly still-active, BRUSA COMINT agreement (Desmond Ball and Jeffrey Richelson, The Ties That Bind: Intelligence Cooperation Between the UKUSA Countries, Allen and Unwin, 1985, pp. 137-8.).

[2] Jeffrey Richelson, The U.S. Intelligence Community (second edition), Ballinger, 1989, p. 283.

[3] Kevin O'Neill, ed., History of CBNRC, 1987, Chapter 2, p. 3, released in severed form under Access to Information Act. The same source states that the Chiefs of Staff Committee had already approved the continuation of "SIGINT activities in peacetime" once before, in September 1945. The War Diaries of the Royal Canadian Corps of Signals Special Wireless Stations also provide evidence that at least some preliminary approval of post-war activities had taken place before March 1946. For example, a new "Alford cage" antenna system was constructed and put into service at Grande Prairie in February 1946 (War Diary: No. 2 Special Wireless Station, entry for 14 February 1946, Canadian Forces Communications and Electronics Museum collection).

[4] History of CBNRC, Chapter 1, p. 1.

[5] Wesley Wark, "Cryptographic Innocence: The Origins of Signals Intelligence in Canada in the Second World War," Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 22 (1987), p. 659.

[6] The Ties That Bind, pp. 142-143; J.L. Granatstein and David Stafford, Spy Wars: Espionage and Canada from Gouzenko to Glasnost, Key Porter, 1990, p. 45; Christopher Andrew, "The Growth of the Australian Intelligence Community and the Anglo-American Connection," Intelligence and National Security, April 1989, pp. 221-255.

[7] The Ties That Bind, p. 142. Although most sources date the UKUSA agreement to 1947, recently some sources have suggested that it actually dates from 1948. See, for example, "The Growth of the Australian Intelligence Community and the Anglo-American Connection," pp. 223-224, and Peter Wright, Spycatcher: The Candid Autobiography of a Senior Intelligence Officer, Stoddart, 1987.

[8] Some sources list Canada as a "Second Party" to the agreement (see, for example, The U.S. Intelligence Community, p. 267.). Apparently, however, Canada is not a signatory of the UKUSA agreement itself. Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau stated this explicitly in 1974 (House of Commons Debates, 10 January 1974, p. 9227.). Former CSE Chief Kevin O'Neill told author James Littleton that "the UKUSA agreements directly link the United Kingdom and the United States. Canada is involved in a less formal way. The agreements to which Canada is a party do not exist on paper. There is no one document spelling out their terms. But they do nonetheless exist as an understanding among the SIGINT organizations of the five English-speaking nations." (James Littleton, Target Nation: Canada and the Western Intelligence Network, Lester and Orpen Dennys, 1986, p. 95.) Canadian participation in the broader UKUSA alliance was confirmed by the Hon. C.M. (Bud) Drury in 1975 (C.M. Drury, testimony, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence of the Standing Committee on Miscellaneous Estimates, 24 March 1975, p. 18:20.). In addition, in 1995, the Deputy Clerk, Security and Intelligence, formally confirmed that "Canada collaborates with some of its closest and long-standing allies in the exchange of foreign intelligence... These countries and the responsible agencies in each are the U.S. (National Security Agency), the U.K. (Government Communications Headquarters), Australia (Defence Signals Directorate), and New Zealand (Government Communications Security Branch [sic])." (Statement by Deputy Clerk, Security and Intelligence, to Standing Committee on National Defence and Veterans Affairs, 2 May 1995.)

[9] Seymour Hersh, "The Target Is Destroyed": What Really Happened to Flight 007 and What America Knew About It, Vintage, 1987, originally published by Random House (1986), p. 67n.

[10] The Ties That Bind, p. 143. CSE's role has been confirmed by former SRS member Larry Clark: "We monitor all Communist bloc nations but we are primarily tasked with monitoring the U.S.S.R. -- and within that we focus on the northern part" (quoted in "Our electronic spying hides behind cover stories," Bob Gilmour, Edmonton Journal, 26 October 1982, p. A2.). See also "The Target is Destroyed", p. 67n, and John Sawatsky, Men in the Shadows: The RCMP Security Service, Doubleday Canada, 1980, p. 9n.

[11] The Ties That Bind, p. 144.

[12] The U.S. Intelligence Community , p. 417.

[13] Security (Canada Communication Group - Publishing cat. no. BT52-6/3), Treasury Board, 1991, pp. 5-6.

[14] Brig. Gen. Walter Agee, USAF, Acting Deputy Director of Intelligence, "Memorandum for the Coordinator of Joint Operations: Proposed U.S.-Canadian Agreement," 7 June 1948. It seems likely that these elements were not significantly changed in the final version of the agreement.

[15] David J. Bercuson and J.L. Granatstein, The Dictionary of Canadian Military History, Oxford University Press, 1992, p. 43. A "Security Agreement between Canada and the United States of America", signed 15 September 1950, may have been related to the CANUSA agreement or to arrangements arising from it, however (see The U.S. Intelligence Community, p. 273.).

[16] CWO D. Cox, "Gander, Newfoundland, and Canadian Forces Station Gander," Communications and Electronics Newsletter, Canadian Forces Communication Command, 1975, p. 14.

Advanced TSCM Signals Detection and Analysis
TSCM - Sweeping the Spectrum for Eavesdropping Devices

Any comments or questions regarding this specific page?

Please feel free to sign our Guest Book

E-mail Address  
Web Page
Street Address
City (optional) State Zip
Country (optional)
Phone (optional)
How did you hear about this site or page?
Do you need to have a bug sweep or other TSCM service performed?
Do you need any TSCM equipment?

| Home | What is TSCM | Types of Bugs | Warning Signs You're Bugged |
| How To Behave if Bugged | TSCM Threat Levels | How To Engage a TSCM Firm |
| Qualifications | TSCM Protocol | Bug Frequencies | Phone Taps and Bugging |
| Signal Analysis | TDR Analysis | TDR Tutorial | Wiretapping | Training | Tools |
| Equipment | OSC-5000 | Kaiser | Riser Bond | Avcom | Search Rcvrs |
| Outside Links | Recommended TSCM Books | TSCM Reference Library |
| Recommended U.S. TSCM Firms | TSCM-L Mailing List |


    To be contacted for a confidential consultation
    please E-mail:

    or send a letter via US Mail to:
    James M. Atkinson
    Granite Island Group
    127 Eastern Avenue #291
    Gloucester, MA 01931-8008

    or call:
    Telephone: (978) 546-3803 / Fax: (978) 546-9467


Copyright ©2002, Granite Island Group