how much is a diflucan pill what is amoxicillin oral valtrex doseage for sore on tongue erythromycin and cyclosporine interaction disulfiram sintomas metformin kidney damage lawsuit why not take dairy with doxycycline augmentin exanthem maxalto lutetia sofa price stablon et atarax do you feel strattera the first time you take it atenolol case coreg 50 mg twice day can seroquel give you high blood pressure healthy alternative to propecia atasi kerontokan dengan propecia 1mg quetiapine heart block do you take zoloft with or without food pode beber tomando synthroid what diseases does azithromycin cure se puede llevar viagra en el avion erythromycin for gerd in infants husband on viagra and wants to fuck all the time coming off nexium side effects diflucan and ketoconazole cream atorvastatin ldl dog allergic to prednisone rocephine et flagyl levitra sold glaxco smith kline how can i get the viagra without a doctor what is the retail cost of nexium 150mg wellbutrin xl twice a day can tetracycline treat uti ivermectin and cats escitalopram malaysia dosage of cephalexin for acne azithromycin dysentery cialis generikum kaufen topamax side effects knee pain sertraline brand names olanzapine breast cancer van seroxat naar zoloft nexium drug usage alternative medications for feline clopidogrel crushing up celexa augmentin treat urinary tract infection levitra femme buy viagra pretoria levaquin rate administration ketoconazole generic philippines is viagra off patent yet quetiapine add on treatment dose insurance cover levitra what does viagra cost with perscription bupropion caracteristicas spironolactone furosemide ppt pdf common dose of hydrochlorothiazide symptomes de grossesse avec clomid how to get viagra without a prescription in las vegas blood pressure medication called atenolol prednisone and pregnancy ra zovirax ophthalmic ointment side effects how to make viagra at home for men in hindi nexium tablet vs capsule cymbalta side effect liver desi viagra benefits can cephalexin be used to treat uti cytotec 50 soles can i take metronidazole for sore throat metronidazole tablet ciproxin tendine di achille ofloxacin dose for infants griseofulvin with alcohol bula do cipro 500mg zofran patch cymbalta takes effect how long captopril 5mg herbal interactions with furosemide nifedipine first trimester dosing azithromycin for kitten xenical roche us griseofulvina jarabe argentina cytotec et perte marron adverse side effects buspar paxil helps acne amoxicillin and clavulanate reviews ketoconazole precautions glucocorticosteroids prednisone metronidazole success rate erectile dysfunction south africa fluconazole single dose reviews cheap zithromax baownbeuv classification of erythromycin ophthalmic blue cross propecia bactrim 3 day dosage bactrim ds allergic reaction allopurinol side effects male infertility vardenafil off label use hair grow back synthroid contraindicaciones al tomar aciclovir can flagyl cause oral thrush viagra user reviews price of viagra , walmart gabapentin is a controlled substance cipro antibiotico amoxicilline samen met ibuprofen xenical weloveshopping zyprexa migraine prevention prednisone dosage for respiatory infection 100 erythromycin safe for babies cialis equivalents plavix lightheadedness propranolol caffeine where can we buy cialis in hong kong cytotec funciona con un mes de embarazo paxil ne ilacidir augmentin and dental abscess xenical rezeptfrei g?nstig bestellen alternativa natural escitalopram buying spironolactone uk fluconazole intravenous generic lexapro not effective natural forms of tetracycline finasteride 0.5mg results can paxil cause hearing loss avodart nombre comercial pharmacy that sell viagra in johannesburg lexapro stomach cramps quem ja usou clomid does flomax stop working cat costa o pilula de viagra plavix lexi comp effect of doxycycline on fertility wellbutrin sr patient assistance program el viagra como se toma pamelor 25mg composi? mejores marcas de viagra aciclovir com anticoncepcional 5mg lexapro effective what is the best generic levitra allegra frazer top 10 viagra pills viagra side effects 20mg does augmentin work for skin infections can ciprotab stop ear pain efeitos do cialis em jovens zyprexa nebenwirkungen schwindel diflucan o pevaryl side effects of ciprofloxacin 250 mg yahoo answers can i take aspirin while taking metronidazole take ativan with zoloft sildenafil forensic behavior cheap cheap buy compare ranitidine and nexium adalat tachycardia mixing wellbutrin and strattera can you take more than 1 viagra at at time dexilant verses nexium robaxin and subutex abilify commercial voice over el cialis es caro premarin tmg can you take robaxin with valium harga ondansetron generik fosamax price walmart zofran dosage pediatrics paroxetine fluoxetine zofran and sedation celexa nausea after eating length of keflex for cellulitis standard dose wellbutrin bula medicamento lasix can i take diuretics with prednisone remedio premarin bula what does strattera sell viagra rapid tabs reviews zoloft wann setzt wirkung ein estradiol cause hair loss price of zoloft 50mg in south africa comprar viagra caxias sul who is the blonde lady on the cialis commercials can zoloft be used with wellbutrin tadalafil durchfall compra cialis professional bactrim breastfeeding mrsa valtrex and pregnancy third trimester dosis pemakaian acyclovir cream coumadin interaction with doxycycline ciprofloxacino combate la gonorrea what causes weight gain with zoloft accion farmacologica del viagra the difference between 20mg and 5mg of cialis side effects of armor synthroid estradiol para ganado order terbinafine online levaquin tendons treatment can i drink alcohol after taking azithromycin valacyclovir labial herpes glimepirida metformina dosis clomid manufacturer name womens viagra online plavix non responsiveness valacyclovir orifarm clomid ovulation ultrasound clopidogrel bisulphate form ii cas no cialis conflict cialis daily uk super kamagra plus cialis pump body building which is better abilify or seroquel doxycycline buy online no prescription uk cialis 48 ore cada cuantas horas tomar cytotec levitra average errection time ciprofloxacin ranbaxy fass can you take azithromycin with coricidin baclofen and ultram chlamydia treatment azithromycin cdc ketoconazole triamcinolone clomid side effects sweating how much cipro should i take for gonorrhea tamoxifeno inicio de ginecomastia ventolin uses methocarbamol informacion en espanol ventolin nebulizer dosage for adults ejemplo receta cytotec paxil and valium amoxicillin to buy from boots where to buy clomid in zambia does premarin come in a patch propecia tablete kupiti azithromycin 1 gm uses clomid prescription nhs replacing cymbalta with lexapro synthroid presentaciones colombia can you a half of a cialis doxycycline 200 mg per day for acne ketoconazole liquid cephalexin buy no prescription allegra hair and body how long will i maintain an errection with viagra doxycycline sensitivity what is the strongest dose of cialis paroxetine vomiting amoxicillin dental surgery metronidazole humira nolvadex et foie linezolid pagine sanitarie cabergoline works rheumatoid arthritis seroquel cialis generic and brand difference international index of erectile function over the counter viagra ottawa prospecto de levitra alli orlistat bugiardino ciprofloxacino y fosfomicina lexapro ajuda clomid night cialis hap eksi sozluk clomid dose male infertility how long does prednisone moon face take to go away alternative for metronidazole for dogs levitra mit rezept kaufen what happens when you mix trimix with viagra gabapentin and speech order levitra online cod gabapentin dosage for dogs arthritis how often can you take 50 mg viagra viagra 400 mg usa tablet zoloft precisa de receita azul generic lipitor more expensive zovirax guercmorteo no prescription diflucan sospensione foglietto illustrativo treatment for accutane hair loss prednisone whilst pregnant how often is singulair taken terbinafine hcl alternatives what are withdrawal symptoms of prednisone alcohol and azithromycin chlamydia does clomid lower progesterone cialis prostate surgery 12 29 rimonabant diet pill the eventual getting pregnant at 45 with clomid cvs prescription price for cialis metformin hypoglycemia mobicontrol 10.0 ciprofloxacina cada cuanto tomarla get high off erythromycin pills like cialis como funciona el aciclovir crema tamoxifeno pre?o df solodyn and spironolactone tendon damage with cipro abilify can be split new breakouts while on accutane viagra suppositors information on nifedipine why are people selling viagra zithromax treatment asthma glucophage before meals missed doses of amoxicillin metronidazole positive pregnancy test aciclovir 800 mg tabletta lisinopril metformin drug interactions muerte por viagra what happens if young boy takes viagra continuous infusion furosemide dose spironolactone lichen planus nexium somnolenta come somministrare diflucan como preparar viagra natural increased cervical mucus after clomid 4 days late kidney transplant prednisone regimen is bactrim ds dangerous bupropion effect on appetite ibogaine zoloft bupropion hcl get you high allegra festas bh what kind of antidepressant is amitriptyline orlistat, doctors, kolkata viagra o cialis cual es mejor gabapentin and peripheral edema what is propranolol 10 mg tablets for tinidazole dosage lyme noretisterona estradiol indicaciones online viagra rating reviews for lexapro for anxiety lexapro five mg fluconazole dosing for uti synthroid howdotofound overnight fluoxetine manufacturers uk sandoz viagra dosage periactin fachinformation azithromycin resin complex metformin vitamin d weight loss precio del famciclovir en mexico what substitue for viagra tamsulosin pricing ivermectina preturi amitriptyline of citalopram apo meloxicam for cats back pain while taking prednisone amoxicillin for staph infections dutasteride bone density celexa and seroquel xr generic cialis 100 mg can you have multiple erections with ciallis neurontin patient assistance forms harmful effects of ventolin isotretinoin 8 weeks ventolin 100 mg spray how many mg per tablet in sample viagra olanzapine used to treat esomeprazole and cipralex best way to buy cialis online viagra does make you last longer long term doxycycline and birth control la pastilla cytotec se venden en farmacias buy doxycycline tablets malaria celexa forever comprar finasteride 1mg online hypo thyroxine side effects clomid effect period raymeds generic viagra ventolin tipo de inhalador pastilla china tipo viagra doxycycline hyclate 100 mg cause yeast infection gabapentin renal nizoral ile kosztuje can you mix propranolol and alcohol cold turkey strattera pantoprazole amoxicillin clarithromycin cyproheptadine australia online como tomar o lexapro paxil men birth defects skin rash with plavix zoloft for health anxiety taking azithromycin and birth control lipitor tablet markings other drugs like clomid prednisone weight gain prednisone cymbalta and sinequan blood test for plavix yeast infection in men fluconazole micronized estradiol vs ethinyl estradiol does metformin cause stomach problems levitra webmd allegra dance performing arts duncan bc kegunaan piroxicam b cyclodextrin 1.2 mg doxycycline tablets of zydus and cadila cost of indapamide pregnant and diflucan muscle twitches cymbalta amlodipine and atenolol together metformin and humulin r abilify and lewy body dementia ventolin hfa order levaquin can be used to treat aminoglykoside amoxicillin medicare levitra neurontin withdrawal hell viagra pill kya hai can strattera cause chills can wellbutrin be taken with tramadol cialis compounding pharmacy orlistat sibutramine rimonabant orlistat e controlado what indian cialis like to use prednisone with scabies azithromycin intolerance doxycycline gene regulation cialis 5 mg prices in buenos aires is there a over the counter version of ciprodex aripiprazole howdotofound australia venta de sildenafil en zona norte abilify fatigue go away zovirax tubes allergy medication stronger than allegra clomid para malhar elavil efficacy aripiprazole tablet patent solo sangre dos dias cytotec potassium supplements while on prednisone allegra cats what is ialex cephalexin capsules bp generic plavix new york times lipitor 10mg and coq10 flagyl and acne buying cfa inhalers in canada albuterol by warwick clomid challenge ultrasound why to use viagra in hindi typical dose of wellbutrin sr phenergan suppositories burning pvp diflucan wellbutrin causing blackouts does keflex work for cellulitis can prednisone weaken teeth medicamento atenolol engorda wat is de prijs van cialis is it safe for pregnant women to take allegra freie alternative viagra revatio dergboadre side effects nifedipine 10 pch cialis dosage two 5mg prednisone arrhythmia propranolol for social anxiety disorder compare seroquel risperidone cialis quicktabs ivermectin 6mg ciprofloxacin tablets during pregnancy will neurontin make you sleep descanso de finasteride que es la medicina ciprofloxacino side effects for amitriptyline 50 mg when should levothyroxine sodium be taken buspar and sleepiness ciprofloxacin tendon rupture step down prednisone dosage in my dog uk viagra sales online trilipix and metoprolol ciprofloxacin hcl 500 mg tab and expiration date estradiol ? hormonio bioidentico duloxetine vs sertraline kamagra kako djeluje generic alternative for celebrex 200mg zovirax cream mims metformin and low b12 levels antidepressants and thyroid metronidazole and alcoholics cialis c20 effetti meloxicam sandoz alcohol levitra and stomach acyclovir before pregnancy cymbalta darreichungsformen ic cephalexin breastfeeding does diflucan kill yeast accutane not working what else zovirax 5 cream prices online no prescription seroquel pletten can you take zicam with amoxicillin what are the price of xenical tablets in ireland husband lying about taking cialis strattera 10 mg price neurontin cause gas azithromycin 250mg tablets 6 pack propranolol side effects pvcs therapie cialis any young people have sucess from propecia dogs taking zoloft spanish name for viagra started clomid period stopped tapering off clomid erythromycin uses in dogs levitra how dosis tamoxifeno post ciclo fluconazole cutaneous leishmaniasis metformin hsg tell me about the drug celebrex withdrawal symptoms of metformin naproxen 375mg urban ventolin low blood sugar

The Communications Security Establishment:
Canada's Signals Intelligence Agency

Much of the text on these pages is drawn from Bill Robinson's article entitled, "Intelligence, Eavesdropping and Privacy: Who watches the Listeners?'' in The System: Crime and Punishment in Canadian Society: A Reader, Craig McKie, ed., Thompson Educational Publishers, Toronto, forthcoming.

Recent updates

What is the Communications Security Establishment?
Overview and Brief History
Policy, Operational and Administrative Control
CSE/SRS Facilities
New Targets?
Recent Steps Toward Oversight

What is the Communications Security Establishment?

The Communications Security Establishment (CSE) is Canada's national Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) organization. SIGINT, as defined by the Canadian government, is "all processes involved in, and information and technical material derived from, the interception and study of foreign communications and non-communications electromagnetic emissions."[1] Subcategories include intelligence derived from communications, also known as Communications Intelligence (COMINT), intelligence derived from non-communications emissions such as radar, also known as Electronics Intelligence (ELINT), and intelligence derived from the telemetry transmissions of missiles or other equipment undergoing testing, also known as Telemetry Intelligence (TELINT). Note that SIGINT is restricted to foreign emissions under the Canadian government definition.

Strictly speaking, CSE is only part of Canada's SIGINT effort. A civilian agency of the Department of National Defence, CSE processes SIGINT, produces analyses, and disseminates reports to Canadian and allied consumer agencies. The actual collection of the SIGINT, however, is conducted by the Canadian Forces Supplementary Radio System (SRS), a component of the Canadian Armed Forces that operates under the direction of CSE.

CSE and the SRS in turn work in close co-operation with the giant American and British SIGINT agencies, the National Security Agency (NSA) and Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), Australia's Defence Signals Directorate (DSD), New Zealand's Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB), and a number of other SIGINT agencies in a global intelligence alliance known informally as the UKUSA community. CSE maintains permanent liaison officers at NSA HQ at Fort Meade, Maryland (CANSLO/W) and GCHQ in Cheltenham, UK (CANSLO/L). There are also NSA and GCHQ liaison officers at CSE HQ (SUSLO/O and BRLO, respectively). For more information about NSA, see the official NSA homepage or the much more informative Federation of American Scientists NSA homepage. For more information about GCHQ, see the IntelWeb GCHQ page.

Overview and Brief History

CSE began existence as the Communications Branch of the National Research Council (CBNRC). Authorized by Order-in-Council 54/3535, dated 13 April 1946, it was the direct descendent of Canada's wartime military and civilian SIGINT processing operations, which also had worked in close co-operation with their American and British counterparts.[2] Officially born on 1 September 1946, it began operations on 3 September 1946.

In 1947, CBNRC took on the additional responsibility of serving as the Canadian government's communications-electronic security (COMSEC) agency. Prior to 1947, the government's encryption systems and keys had been provided by the United Kingdom. ``This arrangement,'' the History of CBNRC noted dryly, ``did not guarantee the privacy of Canadian government classified communications.''[3] CSE continues to bear both SIGINT and COMSEC responsibilities today (the latter responsibility is now listed as the somewhat broader category Information Technology Security (INFOSEC)). For more about CSE's INFOSEC mandate and current INFOSEC activities, see the official CSE homepage.

On 1 April 1975, CBNRC was transferred from the National Research Council to the Department of National Defence and its name changed to the Communications Security Establishment. At the time of its transfer, CBNRC/CSE had about 590 personnel. A major buildup during the period 1981-1990 left CSE at its current strength of about 900.[4]

The following graph depicts CSE's employee strength from 1946-47 to 1993-94.

More information about CSE's employee strength and authorized establishment.

More about CSE's history.

The current Chief of CSE is A. Stewart Woolner. Under the Chief are five Directorates (Policy and Plans; SIGINT Production; Technology; INFOSEC; and Administration), each headed by a Director-General. Each Directorate, in turn, contains a number of Groups, each headed by a Director. An approximation of CSE's overall organization is depicted in this organization chart.

Information about CSE's Badge.

Supplementary Radio System

Canada's SIGINT collection (as opposed to processing) has always been conducted predominantly by military personnel. Small-scale SIGINT collection for the British Royal Navy began in 1925, but collection for Canadian processing began during the Second World War. All three services operated SIGINT collection facilities during the war, and all three continued to collect SIGINT after the war.

A unified collection organization, the Supplementary Radio System (SRS), was created in 1966 as part of the unification of the Canadian Armed Forces. The SRS remains responsible for the ``operation and maintenance of facilities dedicated to the signals intelligence collection role and high frequency radio direction-finding services.''[5]

As of the beginning of 1995, the strength of the SRS, counting civilian support staff at the SIGINT stations, was probably about 1250-1300; perhaps 900 of these were members of the Communicator Research (291) trade, i.e., the actual intercept operators.

Policy, Operational and Administrative Control

Control over Canadian SIGINT activities is divided, with policy and operational control exercised by Cabinet and the Privy Council Office, and administrative control exercised by the Minister and Deputy Minister of National Defence: ``The Chief of CSE is accountable to the Deputy Minister of National Defence for financial and administrative matters, and to the Deputy Clerk (Security and Intelligence, and Counsel) in the PCO for policy and operational matters.''[6]

In practice, policy and operational control is exercised by the Deputy Clerk (Security and Intelligence, and Counsel) and the Intelligence Advisory Committee, both of the Privy Council Office, working under the direction of the Interdepartmental Committee on Security and Intelligence (ICSI) and, ultimately, the Cabinet Committee on Security and Intelligence (CCSI). ``The ICSI maintains general policy control over all aspects of the collection, processing and dissemination of SIGINT and exercises this control through the Intelligence Advisory Committee (IAC) for national SIGINT, and the Canadian Forces for tactical COMINT and ELINT.''[7] The Chief of CSE is an associate member of the ICSI.[8]

Among its other duties, the IAC ``co-ordinates the Canadian SIGINT program with other national intelligence activities and formulates guidance, requirements and priorities for the provision of SIGINT product.''[9] (Some user requirements are also provided to CSE bilaterally by SIGINT customer departments.)

Administrative control is exercised by the Minister and Deputy Minister of the Department of National Defence. ``The Minister approves CSE's major capital expenditures, its annual Multi-Year Operation Plan, and (with CCSI) major CSE initiatives with significant policy or legal implications.''[10]

The Minister of National Defence is the member of Cabinet accountable to Parliament for CSE.[11] It is the responsibility of the Deputy Clerk (Security and Intelligence, and Counsel), ``in co-operation with the deputy minister of National Defence, to ensure the Minister of National Defence [is] knowledgeable about matters of CSE, and able to respond to any questions that would be put on that subject.''[12] In practice, however, it is likely that few ministers of National Defence ever obtain a detailed knowledge of the nature and activities of CSE. Former Minister of National Defence Jean-Jacques Blais has stated, for example, that ``my knowledge of the Communications Security Establishment was very superficial indeed when I was minister of defence.''[13]

Control over INFOSEC activities is organized similarly, except that it is exercised through the Security Advisory Committee of the PCO instead of the Intelligence Advisory Committee.


The formal mandate of CSE is a classified document, presumably approved by the Cabinet Committee on Security and Intelligence; it has never been laid out in statute. As demonstrated above, however, the general nature of CSE's mandate is not secret. IAC SIGINT Memorandum No. 1 confirms that ``the Communications Security Establishment (CSE) of the Department of National Defence has been established as the Canadian National SIGINT Centre, and has been given the responsibility for providing SIGINT to meet the needs of the Federal Government.''[14] What remains secret is the extent to which the communications of Canadians are considered to fall within the SIGINT needs of the Canadian government.

The Canadian public has been told on a number of occasions that CSE's formal mandate restricts it to the collection of ``foreign intelligence''.[15] The government's definition of SIGINT, quoted at the beginning of this chapter, would appear to confirm this assurance.

It is almost certainly significant, however, that the government definition of ``foreign'' communications has never been made public; it was deleted in its entirety from the released version of IAC SIGINT Memorandum No. 1. Depending on the precise definition that the government uses, such communications might include:

There is reason to believe that the government's definition does include at least some of these meanings. For example, then-Solicitor General Robert Kaplan stated explicitly in his 1984 testimony that CSE could, under certain circumstances, ``intercept signals that begin and end in Canada, that begin in Canada and end abroad or the reverse.''[16]

It would appear, therefore, that CSE's ``foreign intelligence'' mandate does permit it to intercept many types of communications that do involve Canadian participants. In fact, the Department of National Defence has admitted that CSE occasionally intercepts communications that involve or contain information about Canadians: ``CSE targets only foreign communications, which, on rare occasions, contain personal information about Canadian citizens and landed immigrants.''[17] In addition, the government has confirmed that CSE maintains a data bank, DND/P-PU-040, ``Security and Intelligence Information Files,'' that contains ``information concerning [Canadians] identified as potential risks to national security.''[18] Nevertheless, the issue of how often and how systematically CSE can and does intercept the communications of Canadians remains unresolved. More on CSE and Canadian communications.

CSE/SRS Facilities

See also the complete list of postwar Canadian SIGINT sites.

New Targets?

The end of the Cold War and dissolution of the Soviet Union have made CSE's Soviet military targets less important than they once were. As a result, CSE almost certainly is under pressure either to shrink or to find new targets. Some shrinkage is likely to take place, but DND's plans for the SRS suggest that new targets are also on the CSE/SRS agenda. In 1994, DND decided to reduce the size of the SRS support staff by converting the facilities at Alert, Gander, and Masset to remote operations by 1997-98. But the number of SRS intercept operators is likely to shrink by only 10-15 per cent as a result of this initiative. The remaining personnel will be redeployed to Ottawa and/or Leitrim, where some will continue work related to the Alert, Gander, and Masset sites, and others (presumably) will be assigned to new targets.

For obvious reasons, the identity of these new targets has not been revealed. It is almost certain, however, that they are located among the growing volume of civilian traffic carried by satellite. The communications satellites that serve Latin America are more likely to be the targets of this expansion than Canadian satellites are, but any step towards the more systematic monitoring of civilian communications should be of concern. Who will be targeted next?

Recent Steps Toward Oversight

Unlike CSIS, which has the SIRC, CSE has never had any form of independent oversight organization to ensure that its invasive powers are not abused. In recent years, the establishment of an independent oversight committee has been recommended both by the Special Committee on the Review of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act and the Security Offences Act and by the SIRC itself.[19] The response of the Mulroney government was that ``a broad accountability system for CSE is in place.''[20] This ``system,'' however, was no more than CSE's normal relationship with the officials at ICSI and DND who have responsibility for the SIGINT program. As the record of the RCMP Security Service, and later CSIS, demonstrated, intelligence agencies cannot be relied upon to police themselves.[21]

The Chretien government initially also maintained that CSE did not require independent oversight. To its credit, however, on 21 March 1995 it permitted the passage of a motion by MP Derek Lee calling on the government to ``establish an independent external mechanism to review the operations of the Communications Security Establishment, CSE, similar to the role played by the Security Intelligence Review Committee for the Canadian Security Intelligence Service, and table a report annually in the House.''[22] The following day, Defence Minister David Collenette announced that the government would indeed establish such a mechanism. He did not, however, provide any details of the government's plans, stating only that, ``in principle, the government supports an oversight mechanism for the CSE.''[23]

The above analysis suggests that a truly effective oversight mechanism would require:

A number of other reforms also would be useful, including: It remains to be seen whether the oversight mechanism to be established will be designed to oversee Canadian SIGINT activities or to overlook their use against Canadians. The government's record in fulfilling the above requirements should provide the answer to that question.


[1] Kevin O'Neill, ed., History of CBNRC, 1987, Chapter 2, Annex G (IAC SIGINT Memorandum No. 1, CONTROL OF SIGNAL INTELLIGENCE (SIGINT) IN CANADA, 24 August 1977), released in severed form under the Access to Information Act.

[2] For more information on Canada's wartime SIGINT activities, see John Bryden, Best-Kept Secret: Canadian Secret Intelligence in the Second World War, Lester Publishing, 1993.

[3] History of CBNRC, Chapter 17, p. 2.

[4] Ward Elcock, testimony, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence of the Sub-Committee on National Security, 15 June 1993, p. 11:9; Statement by Margaret Bloodworth, Deputy Clerk, Security and Intelligence, to Standing Committee on National Defence and Veterans Affairs, 2 May 1995.

[5] Defence 90, Supply and Services, 1991, p. 48.

[6] On Course: National Security for the 1990s, Solicitor General, 1991, p. 54.

[7] History of CBNRC, Chapter 2, Annex G.

[8] Ward Elcock, testimony, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence of the Special Committee on the Review of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act and the Security Offences Act, 24 April 1990, p. 27:9.

[9] History of CBNRC, Chapter 2, Annex G.

[10] On Course, p. 54.

[11] On Course, p. 54.

[12] Blair Seaborn, testimony, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence of the Special Committee on the Review of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act and the Security Offences Act, 20 February 1990, p. 16:9.

[13] Quoted in Peter Moon, ``Spy agency left minister in dark,'' Globe and Mail, 3 June 1991, p. A4. Elsewhere Blais has commented that ``While I had responsibility for the estimates presented to Parliament, that responsibility did not extend to the exercise of ministerial control over the CSE. In practice the control was bureaucratic, in my view short-circuiting the principle of political accountability on which our democracy is founded.'' (Jean Jacques Blais, ``Committee should be expanded to review other agencies,'' Ottawa Citizen, 2 July 1992, p. A11.)

[14] History of CBNRC, Chapter 2, Annex G

[15] See, e.g., Minister of State (External Relations) Jean-Luc Pepin, testimony, Proceedings of the Special Committee of the Senate on the Canadian Security Intelligence Service, 22 September 1983, p. 19.

[16] Robert Kaplan, testimony, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence of the Standing Committee on Justice and Legal Affairs, 5 April 1984, p. 11:68.

[17] Letter from Commander F.B. Frewer, Director Public Affairs Operations, National Defence, to Peter Moon, 15 April 1991.

[18] Personal Information Index 1988, 1988, p. 47- 3.

[19] In Flux But Not in Crisis, report of the Special Committee on the Review of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act and the Security Offences Act, September 1990, pp. 152-3; Annual Report 1988-89, Security Intelligence Review Committee, 1989.

[20] On Course, p. 55.

[21] There is little reason to expect that CSE has been any more reliable in this respect. See, for example, the allegations in the book Spyworld (Mike Frost and Michel Gratton, Spyworld: Inside the Canadian and American Intelligence Establishments, Doubleday Canada, 1994) concerning the interception of Quebec government communications. In 1991, ``former CSE employees and other sources,'' told the Globe and Mail that ``in the past the agency routinely broke Canadian laws in the collection of intelligence involving Canadians.'' (Peter Moon, ``Secrecy shrouds spy agency,'' Globe and Mail, 27 May 1991, pp. A1, A4.) This allegation has not been proven, but a disquieting example of CSE failing to follow appropriate procedures and respect the rights of one of its own employees is on the public record in Muriel Korngold Wexler, Record of Decision (file 166-13-17850), Public Service Staff Relations Board, 12 March 1990. This document includes a detailed description of the mistreatment and eventual unjust firing of CSE cryptanalyst Edwina Slattery during the 1980s. It should be noted that Ms. Slattery considers the Record of Decision's description of the events surrounding her firing to be inaccurate in many respects, notwithstanding the fact that it supported her claim that she had been unjustly fired and recommended that she receive compensation equivalent to two years' pay. Ms. Slattery continues to pursue the case in the Federal Court of Canada.

[22] House of Commons Debates, 21 March 1995, pp. 10815-10820.

[23] Tu Thanh Ha, ``Secretive agency to be more open, Collenette says,'' Globe and Mail, 23 March 1995, p. A5.

Advanced TSCM Signals Detection and Analysis
TSCM - Sweeping the Spectrum for Eavesdropping Devices

Any comments or questions regarding this specific page?

Please feel free to sign our Guest Book

E-mail Address  
Web Page
Street Address
City (optional) State Zip
Country (optional)
Phone (optional)
How did you hear about this site or page?
Do you need to have a bug sweep or other TSCM service performed?
Do you need any TSCM equipment?

| Home | What is TSCM | Types of Bugs | Warning Signs You're Bugged |
| How To Behave if Bugged | TSCM Threat Levels | How To Engage a TSCM Firm |
| Qualifications | TSCM Protocol | Bug Frequencies | Phone Taps and Bugging |
| Signal Analysis | TDR Analysis | TDR Tutorial | Wiretapping | Training | Tools |
| Equipment | OSC-5000 | Kaiser | Riser Bond | Avcom | Search Rcvrs |
| Outside Links | Recommended TSCM Books | TSCM Reference Library |
| Recommended U.S. TSCM Firms | TSCM-L Mailing List |


    To be contacted for a confidential consultation
    please E-mail:

    or send a letter via US Mail to:
    James M. Atkinson
    Granite Island Group
    127 Eastern Avenue #291
    Gloucester, MA 01931-8008

    or call:
    Telephone: (978) 546-3803 / Fax: (978) 546-9467


Copyright ©2002, Granite Island Group