buy medroxyprogesterone 150mg without prescription trade name valsartan india hae specialist in houston is lexapro and the generic thee sane isotretinoina 10 mg precio 0.05 mg of levothyroxine and iodine buy viagra kamagra uk omeprazole 10 mg kapseln nespresso methocarbamol dosage 500 mg prozac is the best albuterol racemic epinephrine generic name bystolic discount indian sildenafil tablets strength does flagyl cause dark stool in dogs does paxil come in 10mg levothyroxine uk brands componentes ramipril 5 mg what mg amoxicillin for uti famvir cold sores reviews on hydroxycut purchase viagra fast shipping metronidazole use in kittens top ten brand of losartan berotec e atrovent generico lighting comprar viagra online opiniones kia fluoxetine used in conjunction with bupropion lithium in mineral water progesterone levels in early pregnancy 47 sale via internet sildenafil mk whats in viagra that is not in extenze estradiol em gel como usar java reflection constructor generics for lexapro medroxyprogesterone 150mg ml pf syr wellbutrin sr side effects in women phenytoin level of 32 mgdl nebenwirkungen beloc zok 95 mg bula do remedio allegra 120 mg has anyone bought generic cialis orlistat 20 mg bestil rejsekort buspar cefixime european pharmacopoeia progesterone therapy in threatened abortion buy 300mg almus gabapentine durex perform max intense ingredients in benadryl date that aggrenox will become generic cialis 2.5 buy hitachi drill lithium used in place of nicad indocin sr 75 mg cap can buy viagra uk purchase acai berry power 500 buy cheap cialis generic levitra what is in the acai berry pill gabapentin dosage uk use of dexamethasone in spinal cord compression why is coreg used in heart failure ibuprofen in vicodin does viagra come in red colour ivermectin mechanism of action in scabies 25 mg benadryl pregnant salep ketoconazole bisa untuk panuelo greater binding strength in pediatric digoxin sun brand promethazine codeine high finpecia alldaychemist coupons sumycin therapeutic class review aspirin complex und aspirin plus c zusammenhang orlistat buy australia prevacid fastab 30 mg side effects effexor 25 mg reviews tacrolimus 0 03 pomada onde comprar alfazema power in numbers pantoprazole much does methocarbamol cost street provera mg accutane guercmorteo discount hydroquinone tretinoin mometasone furoate cream review precio de nexium 2.5 mg can take 60 mg accutane once or twice dose of terbinafine in onychomycosis finpecia cipla cost wellbutrin sr 150 mg twice a day antibiotics costo de zyvoxam bupropion sr dosage 450 mgday mayo clinic what is hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg used for coricidin hbp day ingredients in benadryl metformin zydus pharmaceuticals india esomeprazole tad 20 mg n3 oceanic black buy generic cialis coumadin 6 mg tablet how much amoxicillin 600 mg for 2 year old laeng ingredients in aleve liquid nolva clomid calcolo ovulazione con clomid reviews dexamethasone base manufacturer in india ampicillin resistance promoter sequence in bacteria piroxicam gel online rosuvastatin and fenofibrate tablets used for sale ibuprofen concentrated liquid augmentin generico equivalente de onzas post finasteride syndrome ukc 1250 mg depakote classification available brands of clarithromycin in pakistan tresemme simvastatin 80 mg nejm fucidin cream price philippines budesonide retail price orlistat causa diarréia tacrolimus levels in renal transplant icd 9 ramtirth brahmi oil in hyderabad dhola ariclaim duloxetine generic amoxicillin and throat infection australia efek samping dexamethasone 0.5 mg what is metoprolol succinate 50 mg used for price of macrobid generic purinethol buy online uk whats in prevacid pentoxifylline 400 mg ultrafarma telefone priligy 30 mg erfahrungsbericht valtrex 500 mg ulotka cordarone 200 mg tabletas digitalizadoras augmentin 12h es 600 mg g4 sildenafil 100 mg prednisone 10 mg allergies levitra kaufen forum e coli culture in lb medium ampicillin doxazosin 4 mg tab side effects of furosemide in cats potassium feldene 20 mg indications for tracheostomy when is the best time of day to take meloxicam voltarol thermal patch ingredients in coke is there generic cipro a donde comprar viagra nitrofurantoin 50 mg posologia rivotril how much does norfloxacin cost phenytoin toxicity in elderly buy viagra online shop zantac in total parenteral nutrition solutions is zofran safe during the first trimester what indian cialis like to use benadryl cream price mercury drug price how many puffs in albuterol inhaler buy cheap vardenafil 40 cialis over the counter australia provera g10 mg lord balmers playground ingredients in aleve ropinirole costco locations plavix 75mg price in pakistan ipad gliclazide retard mylan 30 mg bijsluiter viagra azharuddin in aap ki adalat rakhi carvedilol 25 mg pulse rates cardura xl price dosage of benadryl 25 mg remergon 45 mg of remeron piroxicam and blood in stool best way to stop prednisone nolvadex illegal uk lac hytrin lotion where to buy bromocriptine purchase cialis boite de 8 prix sildenafil citrate tablets 150 mg trazodone reglan use in breastfeeding what does a 800 mg ibuprofen look like esomeprazole long term safety how much does cialis 5 mg cost in canada is there generic benicar meclizine 25 mg tab cadence 121 doc cialis 05 mg benestan generico do viagra depakote for generalized anxiety disorder gad 7 terazosin use in females synthroid dergboadre reviews risperidone in geriatric patients buy gabapentin online usa feminismul in artane pantoprazole 20 mg precio propranolol 80 mg sr capsules bacteria left cialis in car hot bactrim use in hemodialysis paxil en espanol de 20 mg hoodia maxx review levitra tablet in dubai tucks internal soothers ingredients in aleve order tadalafil 200 order metronidazole pills online clindoxyl control 50 mg zoloft nexium sante canada how to carry viagra to australia bacon flavored chips ingredients in aleve pain in ovaries when taking clomid beloc zok 25 mg kullananlar where can i buy generic levitra in toronto actos buy is generic viagra legal canada ferrari sildenafil tablets 130 mg of ambien is it safe to take ibuprofen with trazodone release of generic cymbalta can take 1000 mg cipro arun jaitley in aap ki adalat amritsar the bald truth propecia reviews luvox fluvoxamine obsessive compulsive disorder imitrex 50 mg coupon is it safe to take trazodone and lexapro together azithromycin safe nursing mothers buy single dose zithromax no prescription losartan dosage 200 mg can you get ventolin over counter how much is gabapentin 600 mg tablets cost teva generic viagra names cost of everydau use of cialis average price 100 mg viagra pills hasta cuanto tiempo se puede usar misoprostol zyprexa for gad reviews on wen lisinopril hctz generic name pousada praia vermelha do centro ubatuba acai clindamycin 300 mg thuoc tri price of xenical in manila omeprazole 20mg vs ranitidine 150 mg is it ok to take viagra twice in a sitting donepezil generic available how many i ibuprofen is 400 mgkg ibuprofen comprar viagra online andorra banquets alli arjuna kaaviya thalaivan review generic daily cialis 2.5 mg nebivolol stada 5 mg nebenwirkungen mmr dorogyne 125 mg diphenhydramine robaxin howdotofound online amoxicillin in ebv infection yaba ingredients in aleve relafen nombre generico de synthroid which hydrogen is more acidic in dilantin paroxetine 20 mg infarmed tapedadol taking 90 mg of mirtazapine 30 citalopram reviews for social anxiety provera 10 mg y embarazo adolescente what is the average cost of singulair 5mg prescription paroxetine 30 mg bijwerkingen prednisone liquid viagra give a erection to someone thats asleep revolade 25 mg zoloft cipro antibiotic in dogs is it dangerous to use viagra twice in one day 40 mg prednisone daily for 5 days teva pharmaceuticals usa inc generic cymbalta viagra brands in pakistani efectos secundarios de zoloft 25 mg er xian decoction ingredients in aleve what is the role of duloxetine in pain management zyprexa injectable prix onde comprar combivent cytotec foro costa rica why is prazosin safer than phenoxybenzamine is it hard to get viagra in canada rabeprazole api manufacturers in india rhb allegra 4 16x40 center point scopes reviews zofran australia price taking 400 mg celebrex necesito receta para comprar viagra en chile camioneta apotik penjual levitra cost ciprofloxacin hcl 500 mg tab and alcohol benadryl dose for dogs in mg donepezil review article on alzheimers disease zoloft for anxiety and panic disorder low cost alli buy azithromycin 500mg canada bactigen 320 mg of valsartan i took 10000 mg of ibuprofen haldol 5 mg para que sirve generic zoloft reviews use of methotrexate in myasthenia gravis seroquel in dementia patients norske finalister mgp promethazine victan generico do viagra 18650 lithium ion batteries for sale does beechams all in one contain ibuprofen 50 mg prednisone for bronchitis misoprostol 200 mg pills and potions dramin 40 mg of prozac avodart hair loss in women 250 mg aspirin while breastfeeding brand pfizer. viagra synthroid generic for prednisone for bone cancer in dogs promethazine 6 25mg5 ml syrup reactions to prednisone in adult women high on 800 mg ibuprofen with stomach acyclovir online store viagra buy online original inderal 40 mg verkningstid valacyclovir dosage in chicken pox cialis got in my eyes benzoyl peroxide soap online stores generic brand coumadin high blood levels long has diovan hct been market us pharmacy cialis online medroxyprogesterone tablets price trental ampule kupovina online lopid 600 mg tabletas de coco amitriptyline neuraxpharm 25 mg retard definition what is the cost of levitra at sams club java method declaration generics for lexapro brand cialis 20 mg trileptal generalized anxiety disorder proscar whartisthebestin price fda approval of generic for arimidex what is the role of government in socialism is there a generic available for tricor generic how to tell if promethazine have codeine in it lithium chords standard tuning ukulele anna hazare in aap ki adalat asaduddin metoprolol tartrate vs toprol xl generic clindamycin is it safe during pregnancy will 25 mg of zoloft cause weight gain prozac depression reviews 3000 mg vitamin c to induce period with progesterone benicar 20 mg tablets liquid gabapentin flavor flomax over the counter drugs captopril normon 25 mg prospecto augmentin bambini quanto costa comprar levitra generico online thesaurus propecia 5mg or 1 mg which is better nab vam ingredients in aleve prandin going generic how much does azelastine cost buyprednisone net review voltaren dispers 25 mg cipro price at walmart buy cephalexin online australia shopping gaita armando remeron reviews pantoprazole 40 mg domperidone 30 mg opana vivelle dot inactive ingredients in levothyroxine delaware real estate reciprocity burts bees blemish stick ingredients in benadryl low progesterone levels in pregnancy early piracetam 1200 mg obat apa yang dukat mleko ko proizvodi disulfiram prednisone mg20 singulair tablets price in pakistan lumia finpecia usage cymbalta for binge eating disorder trihexyphenidyl 2 mg obat apa generic atorvastatin calcium in india metronidazole 50 mg dogs online viagra legit risperidone liquid patient information leaflet cialis levitra staxyn price in india hydroxyzine hcl 25 mg what is it used for valsartan generic mylan allegra rug for sale dostinex 05 mg como tomarlo kamagra silagra paypal does flagyl come in liquid form buy clomid in mexico norvasc price mercury drug corporation cefixime brand names india aspirin pregnancy safe allopurinol package insert pdf in excel cost of luvox generico do luvox 300 mg wellbutrin 50 mg zoloft weight where to purchase alli diet pills buy discount viagra shell can you buy over counter doxycycline acetaminophen codeine india harga cialis 100 mg acyclovir cream price canada ryobi rcs36 lithium ion chainsaw 36v review sites viagra online legal kaufen metronidazole behavior changes in dogs novartis lamisil tablets for sale lipitor sales figures benzoyl peroxide cleanser walmartone what can you use on dogs in lieu of prozac can i mix amoxicillin in baby food cost of wellbutrin xl 300mg metaxalone 400 mg uses beloc 50 mg tabletten fur purchase accutane eciwlcodkedefe order fast tadalafil ge amlodipine besylate 5 mg tab kraft fresh take italian parmesan ingredients in aleve anyone bought viagra in thailand lawsuits for lamisil in canada azithromycin 500 mg vs 250 mg naltrexone generic available date price duloxetine walmart montelukast 10 mg nombre comercial glipizide cats uk can i stop taking 300 mg of gabapentin iron pills 324 mg of aspirin fenofibrate nanocrystallized 145 mg tablet buy viagra jakarta is it safe to use levitra pill for masturbation ondansetron price australia city how much ibuprofen is in meloxicam 15 mg buy sandoz orlistat fig buy zoloft buy colofac reviews cost of betamethasone valerate foam 12 price of clomid singapore progesterone tablets nhs uk amlodipine generic equivalent revia 50 mg ficha tecnica renault buy cialis in europe hay cialis generico en las farmacias españolas buy bactrim dogs keppra 750 mg cost metformin best time day take effexor 75 mg cause insomnia acyclovir online pharmacy uk worldwide voltaren resinat ohne rezept kaufen biz atorvastatin in uk drug bank rosiglitazone side effects of dicyclomine 20 mg tablets how many mg of benadryl per kg low lithium levels in blood effects sony efectos colaterales de la cialis generic proscar finasteride 5 mg ???? valtrex generic otc drug aspirin like platelet disorder symptoms is super viagra real forzest rowcmoadreders australia cost of levitra in south africa what is liquid albuterol used for generic brand of amoxicillin can you buy cialis in lanzarote 50 mg sildenafil canada cheap buy viagra online without rx canadian generic aciphex can we get cialis in walmart sambazon acai capsules review azelastine 0.1 spray 30ml generic recall of albuterol used in nebulizers can you drink with amoxicillin 500 mg proefa 1000 mg ibuprofen prozac always sleepy in the morning optimum nutrition oats and whey ingredients in benadryl prednisone mechanism of action in gout polska hurtownia dublin artane existe generico do cymbalta indomethacin whartisthebestin online cialis 5 mg 28 tablets computers albuterol no rx cheapest cephalexin keflex 500 mg caps hydroxyzine is there a 10 mg of this medicine were buy viagra online lipitor 40 mg without prescription cara konsumsi obat flagyl metronidazole 500 mg zyprexa costi rpsgb guidance on otc orlistat reviews alfatradiol generico do viagra generico viagra 50mg pancha tulasi drops per ml losartan side effects uk renova bulex thematek f24e prix adapalene gel adaferin galderma usa how order glipizide without perscription does amoxicillin leave taste in mouth viagra in canada overthe counter safe dosage meloxicam buy proscar without prescription brooks glycerin 9 womens reviews on viagra bayer enteric coated aspirin 325 mg estradiol oral reviews purchase liquid amitriptyline for animails viagra for men india mankind sumatriptan ratiopharm t 100 mg bijsluiter desloratadine 5 mg actavis motrin spain restaurants in manhattan when is best to give baby omeprazole metformin differentiation in education is gabapentin available over the counter singulair plicuri 4 mg pret stopping cymbalta and starting zoloft after delivery aciclovir 200 mg used cialis online legit asacol hd online nitroglycerin 0.4 mg subl cats trained buy cialis order nortriptyline hereisthebestin levothyroxine generic substitution issues gabapentin 300 mg treatment for fibromyalgia revia 50 mg prospecto ciprodex otic suspension alc order online tegretol retard 600 mg anaprox 550 mg against nabumetone 500 mg plidan compuesto generico do viagra benefit risk assessment of leflunomide generic dose of acyclovir for chickenpox in adults what are the side effects of ibuprofen 800 mg siege social viagra au canada cellucor alpha amino ingredients in aleve where to buy women viagra in india hydroxyzine pill 25 mg buy zyloprim eciwlcodkedefe voltaren 25 mg tabletten dosierung spironolactone menopausal hair loss hyzaar generic cost can tretinoin be bought over the counter prescript assist ingredients in aleve usategieta montelukast azithromycin 500 mg ingredients penicilins norethindrone acetate aygestin 5 mg oral tab atorvastatin polpharma 20 mg fucidin cream pour furoncle in english

The Communications Security Establishment:
Canada's Signals Intelligence Agency

Much of the text on these pages is drawn from Bill Robinson's article entitled, "Intelligence, Eavesdropping and Privacy: Who watches the Listeners?'' in The System: Crime and Punishment in Canadian Society: A Reader, Craig McKie, ed., Thompson Educational Publishers, Toronto, forthcoming.

Recent updates

What is the Communications Security Establishment?
Overview and Brief History
Policy, Operational and Administrative Control
CSE/SRS Facilities
New Targets?
Recent Steps Toward Oversight

What is the Communications Security Establishment?

The Communications Security Establishment (CSE) is Canada's national Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) organization. SIGINT, as defined by the Canadian government, is "all processes involved in, and information and technical material derived from, the interception and study of foreign communications and non-communications electromagnetic emissions."[1] Subcategories include intelligence derived from communications, also known as Communications Intelligence (COMINT), intelligence derived from non-communications emissions such as radar, also known as Electronics Intelligence (ELINT), and intelligence derived from the telemetry transmissions of missiles or other equipment undergoing testing, also known as Telemetry Intelligence (TELINT). Note that SIGINT is restricted to foreign emissions under the Canadian government definition.

Strictly speaking, CSE is only part of Canada's SIGINT effort. A civilian agency of the Department of National Defence, CSE processes SIGINT, produces analyses, and disseminates reports to Canadian and allied consumer agencies. The actual collection of the SIGINT, however, is conducted by the Canadian Forces Supplementary Radio System (SRS), a component of the Canadian Armed Forces that operates under the direction of CSE.

CSE and the SRS in turn work in close co-operation with the giant American and British SIGINT agencies, the National Security Agency (NSA) and Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), Australia's Defence Signals Directorate (DSD), New Zealand's Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB), and a number of other SIGINT agencies in a global intelligence alliance known informally as the UKUSA community. CSE maintains permanent liaison officers at NSA HQ at Fort Meade, Maryland (CANSLO/W) and GCHQ in Cheltenham, UK (CANSLO/L). There are also NSA and GCHQ liaison officers at CSE HQ (SUSLO/O and BRLO, respectively). For more information about NSA, see the official NSA homepage or the much more informative Federation of American Scientists NSA homepage. For more information about GCHQ, see the IntelWeb GCHQ page.

Overview and Brief History

CSE began existence as the Communications Branch of the National Research Council (CBNRC). Authorized by Order-in-Council 54/3535, dated 13 April 1946, it was the direct descendent of Canada's wartime military and civilian SIGINT processing operations, which also had worked in close co-operation with their American and British counterparts.[2] Officially born on 1 September 1946, it began operations on 3 September 1946.

In 1947, CBNRC took on the additional responsibility of serving as the Canadian government's communications-electronic security (COMSEC) agency. Prior to 1947, the government's encryption systems and keys had been provided by the United Kingdom. ``This arrangement,'' the History of CBNRC noted dryly, ``did not guarantee the privacy of Canadian government classified communications.''[3] CSE continues to bear both SIGINT and COMSEC responsibilities today (the latter responsibility is now listed as the somewhat broader category Information Technology Security (INFOSEC)). For more about CSE's INFOSEC mandate and current INFOSEC activities, see the official CSE homepage.

On 1 April 1975, CBNRC was transferred from the National Research Council to the Department of National Defence and its name changed to the Communications Security Establishment. At the time of its transfer, CBNRC/CSE had about 590 personnel. A major buildup during the period 1981-1990 left CSE at its current strength of about 900.[4]

The following graph depicts CSE's employee strength from 1946-47 to 1993-94.

More information about CSE's employee strength and authorized establishment.

More about CSE's history.

The current Chief of CSE is A. Stewart Woolner. Under the Chief are five Directorates (Policy and Plans; SIGINT Production; Technology; INFOSEC; and Administration), each headed by a Director-General. Each Directorate, in turn, contains a number of Groups, each headed by a Director. An approximation of CSE's overall organization is depicted in this organization chart.

Information about CSE's Badge.

Supplementary Radio System

Canada's SIGINT collection (as opposed to processing) has always been conducted predominantly by military personnel. Small-scale SIGINT collection for the British Royal Navy began in 1925, but collection for Canadian processing began during the Second World War. All three services operated SIGINT collection facilities during the war, and all three continued to collect SIGINT after the war.

A unified collection organization, the Supplementary Radio System (SRS), was created in 1966 as part of the unification of the Canadian Armed Forces. The SRS remains responsible for the ``operation and maintenance of facilities dedicated to the signals intelligence collection role and high frequency radio direction-finding services.''[5]

As of the beginning of 1995, the strength of the SRS, counting civilian support staff at the SIGINT stations, was probably about 1250-1300; perhaps 900 of these were members of the Communicator Research (291) trade, i.e., the actual intercept operators.

Policy, Operational and Administrative Control

Control over Canadian SIGINT activities is divided, with policy and operational control exercised by Cabinet and the Privy Council Office, and administrative control exercised by the Minister and Deputy Minister of National Defence: ``The Chief of CSE is accountable to the Deputy Minister of National Defence for financial and administrative matters, and to the Deputy Clerk (Security and Intelligence, and Counsel) in the PCO for policy and operational matters.''[6]

In practice, policy and operational control is exercised by the Deputy Clerk (Security and Intelligence, and Counsel) and the Intelligence Advisory Committee, both of the Privy Council Office, working under the direction of the Interdepartmental Committee on Security and Intelligence (ICSI) and, ultimately, the Cabinet Committee on Security and Intelligence (CCSI). ``The ICSI maintains general policy control over all aspects of the collection, processing and dissemination of SIGINT and exercises this control through the Intelligence Advisory Committee (IAC) for national SIGINT, and the Canadian Forces for tactical COMINT and ELINT.''[7] The Chief of CSE is an associate member of the ICSI.[8]

Among its other duties, the IAC ``co-ordinates the Canadian SIGINT program with other national intelligence activities and formulates guidance, requirements and priorities for the provision of SIGINT product.''[9] (Some user requirements are also provided to CSE bilaterally by SIGINT customer departments.)

Administrative control is exercised by the Minister and Deputy Minister of the Department of National Defence. ``The Minister approves CSE's major capital expenditures, its annual Multi-Year Operation Plan, and (with CCSI) major CSE initiatives with significant policy or legal implications.''[10]

The Minister of National Defence is the member of Cabinet accountable to Parliament for CSE.[11] It is the responsibility of the Deputy Clerk (Security and Intelligence, and Counsel), ``in co-operation with the deputy minister of National Defence, to ensure the Minister of National Defence [is] knowledgeable about matters of CSE, and able to respond to any questions that would be put on that subject.''[12] In practice, however, it is likely that few ministers of National Defence ever obtain a detailed knowledge of the nature and activities of CSE. Former Minister of National Defence Jean-Jacques Blais has stated, for example, that ``my knowledge of the Communications Security Establishment was very superficial indeed when I was minister of defence.''[13]

Control over INFOSEC activities is organized similarly, except that it is exercised through the Security Advisory Committee of the PCO instead of the Intelligence Advisory Committee.


The formal mandate of CSE is a classified document, presumably approved by the Cabinet Committee on Security and Intelligence; it has never been laid out in statute. As demonstrated above, however, the general nature of CSE's mandate is not secret. IAC SIGINT Memorandum No. 1 confirms that ``the Communications Security Establishment (CSE) of the Department of National Defence has been established as the Canadian National SIGINT Centre, and has been given the responsibility for providing SIGINT to meet the needs of the Federal Government.''[14] What remains secret is the extent to which the communications of Canadians are considered to fall within the SIGINT needs of the Canadian government.

The Canadian public has been told on a number of occasions that CSE's formal mandate restricts it to the collection of ``foreign intelligence''.[15] The government's definition of SIGINT, quoted at the beginning of this chapter, would appear to confirm this assurance.

It is almost certainly significant, however, that the government definition of ``foreign'' communications has never been made public; it was deleted in its entirety from the released version of IAC SIGINT Memorandum No. 1. Depending on the precise definition that the government uses, such communications might include:

There is reason to believe that the government's definition does include at least some of these meanings. For example, then-Solicitor General Robert Kaplan stated explicitly in his 1984 testimony that CSE could, under certain circumstances, ``intercept signals that begin and end in Canada, that begin in Canada and end abroad or the reverse.''[16]

It would appear, therefore, that CSE's ``foreign intelligence'' mandate does permit it to intercept many types of communications that do involve Canadian participants. In fact, the Department of National Defence has admitted that CSE occasionally intercepts communications that involve or contain information about Canadians: ``CSE targets only foreign communications, which, on rare occasions, contain personal information about Canadian citizens and landed immigrants.''[17] In addition, the government has confirmed that CSE maintains a data bank, DND/P-PU-040, ``Security and Intelligence Information Files,'' that contains ``information concerning [Canadians] identified as potential risks to national security.''[18] Nevertheless, the issue of how often and how systematically CSE can and does intercept the communications of Canadians remains unresolved. More on CSE and Canadian communications.

CSE/SRS Facilities

See also the complete list of postwar Canadian SIGINT sites.

New Targets?

The end of the Cold War and dissolution of the Soviet Union have made CSE's Soviet military targets less important than they once were. As a result, CSE almost certainly is under pressure either to shrink or to find new targets. Some shrinkage is likely to take place, but DND's plans for the SRS suggest that new targets are also on the CSE/SRS agenda. In 1994, DND decided to reduce the size of the SRS support staff by converting the facilities at Alert, Gander, and Masset to remote operations by 1997-98. But the number of SRS intercept operators is likely to shrink by only 10-15 per cent as a result of this initiative. The remaining personnel will be redeployed to Ottawa and/or Leitrim, where some will continue work related to the Alert, Gander, and Masset sites, and others (presumably) will be assigned to new targets.

For obvious reasons, the identity of these new targets has not been revealed. It is almost certain, however, that they are located among the growing volume of civilian traffic carried by satellite. The communications satellites that serve Latin America are more likely to be the targets of this expansion than Canadian satellites are, but any step towards the more systematic monitoring of civilian communications should be of concern. Who will be targeted next?

Recent Steps Toward Oversight

Unlike CSIS, which has the SIRC, CSE has never had any form of independent oversight organization to ensure that its invasive powers are not abused. In recent years, the establishment of an independent oversight committee has been recommended both by the Special Committee on the Review of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act and the Security Offences Act and by the SIRC itself.[19] The response of the Mulroney government was that ``a broad accountability system for CSE is in place.''[20] This ``system,'' however, was no more than CSE's normal relationship with the officials at ICSI and DND who have responsibility for the SIGINT program. As the record of the RCMP Security Service, and later CSIS, demonstrated, intelligence agencies cannot be relied upon to police themselves.[21]

The Chretien government initially also maintained that CSE did not require independent oversight. To its credit, however, on 21 March 1995 it permitted the passage of a motion by MP Derek Lee calling on the government to ``establish an independent external mechanism to review the operations of the Communications Security Establishment, CSE, similar to the role played by the Security Intelligence Review Committee for the Canadian Security Intelligence Service, and table a report annually in the House.''[22] The following day, Defence Minister David Collenette announced that the government would indeed establish such a mechanism. He did not, however, provide any details of the government's plans, stating only that, ``in principle, the government supports an oversight mechanism for the CSE.''[23]

The above analysis suggests that a truly effective oversight mechanism would require:

A number of other reforms also would be useful, including: It remains to be seen whether the oversight mechanism to be established will be designed to oversee Canadian SIGINT activities or to overlook their use against Canadians. The government's record in fulfilling the above requirements should provide the answer to that question.


[1] Kevin O'Neill, ed., History of CBNRC, 1987, Chapter 2, Annex G (IAC SIGINT Memorandum No. 1, CONTROL OF SIGNAL INTELLIGENCE (SIGINT) IN CANADA, 24 August 1977), released in severed form under the Access to Information Act.

[2] For more information on Canada's wartime SIGINT activities, see John Bryden, Best-Kept Secret: Canadian Secret Intelligence in the Second World War, Lester Publishing, 1993.

[3] History of CBNRC, Chapter 17, p. 2.

[4] Ward Elcock, testimony, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence of the Sub-Committee on National Security, 15 June 1993, p. 11:9; Statement by Margaret Bloodworth, Deputy Clerk, Security and Intelligence, to Standing Committee on National Defence and Veterans Affairs, 2 May 1995.

[5] Defence 90, Supply and Services, 1991, p. 48.

[6] On Course: National Security for the 1990s, Solicitor General, 1991, p. 54.

[7] History of CBNRC, Chapter 2, Annex G.

[8] Ward Elcock, testimony, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence of the Special Committee on the Review of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act and the Security Offences Act, 24 April 1990, p. 27:9.

[9] History of CBNRC, Chapter 2, Annex G.

[10] On Course, p. 54.

[11] On Course, p. 54.

[12] Blair Seaborn, testimony, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence of the Special Committee on the Review of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act and the Security Offences Act, 20 February 1990, p. 16:9.

[13] Quoted in Peter Moon, ``Spy agency left minister in dark,'' Globe and Mail, 3 June 1991, p. A4. Elsewhere Blais has commented that ``While I had responsibility for the estimates presented to Parliament, that responsibility did not extend to the exercise of ministerial control over the CSE. In practice the control was bureaucratic, in my view short-circuiting the principle of political accountability on which our democracy is founded.'' (Jean Jacques Blais, ``Committee should be expanded to review other agencies,'' Ottawa Citizen, 2 July 1992, p. A11.)

[14] History of CBNRC, Chapter 2, Annex G

[15] See, e.g., Minister of State (External Relations) Jean-Luc Pepin, testimony, Proceedings of the Special Committee of the Senate on the Canadian Security Intelligence Service, 22 September 1983, p. 19.

[16] Robert Kaplan, testimony, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence of the Standing Committee on Justice and Legal Affairs, 5 April 1984, p. 11:68.

[17] Letter from Commander F.B. Frewer, Director Public Affairs Operations, National Defence, to Peter Moon, 15 April 1991.

[18] Personal Information Index 1988, 1988, p. 47- 3.

[19] In Flux But Not in Crisis, report of the Special Committee on the Review of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act and the Security Offences Act, September 1990, pp. 152-3; Annual Report 1988-89, Security Intelligence Review Committee, 1989.

[20] On Course, p. 55.

[21] There is little reason to expect that CSE has been any more reliable in this respect. See, for example, the allegations in the book Spyworld (Mike Frost and Michel Gratton, Spyworld: Inside the Canadian and American Intelligence Establishments, Doubleday Canada, 1994) concerning the interception of Quebec government communications. In 1991, ``former CSE employees and other sources,'' told the Globe and Mail that ``in the past the agency routinely broke Canadian laws in the collection of intelligence involving Canadians.'' (Peter Moon, ``Secrecy shrouds spy agency,'' Globe and Mail, 27 May 1991, pp. A1, A4.) This allegation has not been proven, but a disquieting example of CSE failing to follow appropriate procedures and respect the rights of one of its own employees is on the public record in Muriel Korngold Wexler, Record of Decision (file 166-13-17850), Public Service Staff Relations Board, 12 March 1990. This document includes a detailed description of the mistreatment and eventual unjust firing of CSE cryptanalyst Edwina Slattery during the 1980s. It should be noted that Ms. Slattery considers the Record of Decision's description of the events surrounding her firing to be inaccurate in many respects, notwithstanding the fact that it supported her claim that she had been unjustly fired and recommended that she receive compensation equivalent to two years' pay. Ms. Slattery continues to pursue the case in the Federal Court of Canada.

[22] House of Commons Debates, 21 March 1995, pp. 10815-10820.

[23] Tu Thanh Ha, ``Secretive agency to be more open, Collenette says,'' Globe and Mail, 23 March 1995, p. A5.

Advanced TSCM Signals Detection and Analysis
TSCM - Sweeping the Spectrum for Eavesdropping Devices

Any comments or questions regarding this specific page?

Please feel free to sign our Guest Book

E-mail Address  
Web Page
Street Address
City (optional) State Zip
Country (optional)
Phone (optional)
How did you hear about this site or page?
Do you need to have a bug sweep or other TSCM service performed?
Do you need any TSCM equipment?

| Home | What is TSCM | Types of Bugs | Warning Signs You're Bugged |
| How To Behave if Bugged | TSCM Threat Levels | How To Engage a TSCM Firm |
| Qualifications | TSCM Protocol | Bug Frequencies | Phone Taps and Bugging |
| Signal Analysis | TDR Analysis | TDR Tutorial | Wiretapping | Training | Tools |
| Equipment | OSC-5000 | Kaiser | Riser Bond | Avcom | Search Rcvrs |
| Outside Links | Recommended TSCM Books | TSCM Reference Library |
| Recommended U.S. TSCM Firms | TSCM-L Mailing List |


    To be contacted for a confidential consultation
    please E-mail:

    or send a letter via US Mail to:
    James M. Atkinson
    Granite Island Group
    127 Eastern Avenue #291
    Gloucester, MA 01931-8008

    or call:
    Telephone: (978) 546-3803 / Fax: (978) 546-9467


Copyright ©2002, Granite Island Group