is it safe to take flovent while pregnant remedio orlistat onde comprar fluconazole is it safe in pregnancy price for omnicef captopril 25 mg prospecto 100 mg strattera side effects orlistat cheap online aus levitra how many mg betamethasone valerate chemist warehouse orlistat sandoz 60 mg how safe is neurontin viagra in sf where to buy nizoral 2 online mobic life x7 sale effectiveness of azithromycin in gonorrhea atenolol medication 50 mg is aquatic amoxicillin safe for humans digoxin in heart failure powerpoint street value of naproxen 550 mg ta levitra brand bayer gabapentin drug 400 mg pantoprazole sodium 40 mg over counter equivalent is it safe to use omeprazole while pregnant norvasc costs paxil how much does it cost 150 mg of trazodone clomid store online viagra tablets in kerala can i buy viagra online in uk lexapro 60 mg daily side effects metoprolol succ er 25 mg simvastatin oral tablet 10 mg information lipitor generic wall street journal buy cheap amoxil online uses of pantoprazole 40 mg valtrex and generics elocon lozione costo online pharmacy accutane no prescription which is best atorvastatin or simvastatin cephalexin user reviews side effects can i cut nifedipine in half 60 mg prednisone eye sight thuoc xenical 120 mg carvedilol annual sales weight loss with prozac 20 mg which is the best viagra for women yahoo triamcinolone hexacetonide india where can i buy clomid at lamisil gel jock itch reviews can you buy nolvadex in a vitamin store propranolol hcl 20 mg or tabs is levitra over the counter in cabo san lucas side effects of prednisone in boys azithromycin top brand amoxicillin 500 mg tablet uses voltaren 50 mg tabletti lowest cost for nexium prometrium is it safe lisinopril price at walgreens augmentin duo in pregnancy viagra paypal payment accepted in texas generic cialis 99cents roaccutane ilk 3 ay 20 mg cialis 5 mg in hong kong cost of synthroid cvs misoprostol onde comprar diovan 160 mg sale ciprofloxacino generico intercambiable how to taper off cymbalta 30 mg what is amlodipine besylate used for in dogs viagra online order guide actonel 75 mg vademecum how to order 500 mg white metronidazole how much does viagra cost even with a prescription celebra celecoxib 200 mg para que serve minocycline generic for esomeprazole dose in infants what is in singulair safe cut abilify half street price for naproxen 500mg chinese cialis australia etodolac 400 mg risk actos procesales de instruccion nitroglycerin contraindicated in mi side effect of simvastatin 80 mg how long does levaquin stay in the system kamagra us paypal amlodipine patient review is amoxil safe during pregnancy why is domperidone not approved in us valsartan 160 mg para sirve how you take liquid viagra 1600 mg acyclovir breastfeeding donde puedo comprar la pastilla cytotec en peru can i go in the sun when taking prednisone safe dose range ondansetron when will there be a generic diovan telmisartan in usa cheap price for metronidazole gel usp 0.75 zofran safe in pregnancy what is in coumadin clonidine in intrathecal cialis online drug store albuterol syrup uk buy tamoxifen ebewe para que sirve levaquin 500 mg how much does methotrexate and misoprostol cost is it safe to take paxil and wellbutrin plavix patent expiration europe viagra thailand buy viagra generico djavu como se usa cytotec de 100 mg prozac attention deficit disorder aspirin clopidogrel in usa buy fluoxetine cats viagra with out prescription in houston tx costo prometrium 200 mg where to buy prozac for dogs many mg propecia per day best time day take levothroid border collies and ivermectin prozac 20 mg during pregnancy is naproxen 500 mg stronger than panadine forte xenical 120 mg safe citalopram is zanaflex safe for diabetics glyburide metformin buy online best way to lose weight while on depakote zovirax cream sale buying viagra affilated with pharmacy center provera bankovnih racuna is it safe to take tramadol and wellbutrin together pentoxifylline brands india cytotec medicine price metronidazole 500mg buy buy oxytetracycline tablets como realizar actos de ilusionismo gabapentin informacion en espanol de 100 mg buy lasix online from canada can buy cephalexin 500mg role of atenolol in heart failure acyclovir 800 mg monograph get off cymbalta safely book levlen ed generic name purchase viagra legally online accutane has been taken off the market usa viagra ® official cipro 500 mg ek?i sözlük ciprofloxacin bayer 500 mg para que se usa el medicamento decadron robaxin australia side effects of generic zocor can you drink omeprazole 20 mg gabapentin use in australia what is the generic for cialis 5 mg azithromycin for sale usa can i pay for viagra on paypal order acyclovir from the manufacturer ecp levonorgestrel 0.75 mg is clindamycin safe for infants sildenafil orion 50 mg vaikutusaika forma correcta para usar cytotec celebrex when will generic be available buy metronidazole for dogs no prescription elavil during pregnancy safe ondansetron oral dose in dogs stromectol eciwlcodkedefe discount effexor 150 mg good is amoxicillin trihydrate safe for infants tadacip europe do doctors prescribe .5 mg propecia is buspirone safe while breastfeeding prix du dostinex 0 5 mg metronidazole for dog price philippines auto usate viagrande generic names for mircette best price uroxatral can i get viagra in a drink bankruptcy specialist 2 jobs work at home buy differin .3 socialist party in italy generic singulair dies it work purchase viagra in the uk tetracycline treatment in horses lamisil tablets price in toronto 125mg generic viramune medicamento robaxin 750 mg nizoral shampoo 2 uk cheap viagra com how many mirtazapine 45 mg overdose when to take 100 mg viagra terbinafine other drugs in same class viagra purchase by phone cialis generico 24 ore amiodarone 200 mg posologie prozac 20 mg forum consecuencias usar levonorgestrel is giving benadryl to a dog safe brand name of permethrin cream dexamethasone tablets bp 0.5 mg natural viagra in china generic pill for premarin cefpodoxime in dental infections mechanism of action of imipramine in enuresis how much is viagra in mexico viagra online is it safe lloyds side effects of 5 mg prednisone daily finasteride usp in pakistan evista safe take fluconazole 150 mg no prescription is it safe to take tylenol 3 with amoxicillin liquid amoxicillin 1 year walmart augmentin liquid for cats where to buy online tamoxifeno pre?o generico can i take fluconazole in pregnancy where can i safely buy cialis online overnight generic levitra buy 5 mg k9 prednisone no prescription cost of viagra versus cialis nexium 40 mg po bid como se usa o clomid can you snort naproxen 500 mg over the counter seroquel substitute order pet zithromax no prescription benzac buy online comprar sildenafil can i get clomiphene pills over the counter viagra getpharma the real pharmacy the price of synthroid liquid bactrim dosage for dogs wasn t celebrex taken off market ibuprofen toxicity in a dog cost of lexapro 20mg in ireland reciprocity tax table in sap what is cialis tablet name in saudi arabia iv bag of flagyl price viagra manufactured in canada buy 2 grams zithromax is it safe to mix benadryl and alcohol onde comprar xenical no rj will there generic strattera cialis generico tadacip cialis 100mg bestellen acyclovir canada over counter gram positive cocci in pairs levaquin zoloft over the counter india benadryl dosage in cats lamictal reviews generic viagra bupropion hcl 150 mg used for how long does 500mg metformin stay in your system fluconazole gt 150 mg where can i buy clomid in canada without a prescription generic ventolin salbutamol tizanidine hydrochloride generic ondansetron in nausea and vomiting order lioresal obsessive compulsive disorder zoloft indomethacin 50 mg efectos secundarios gabapentin suppliers uk breaking zoloft in half s adalat papers j shaw in nephron carol inward is doxycycline an over the counter drug generic keflex dosage for dogs with uri is it safe to take amoxicillin and benadryl together paxil cost cvs levitra patent in india para que se usa el misoprostol topamax 100 mg prezzo is viagra safe for heart failure patients clomid for sale canada clopidogrel 75 mg composition vendita online generic cialis super active x 10 determination of ezetimibe in human plasma cialis rezeptfrei in schweiz side effects of doxepin 10 mg buy zoloft canadian pharmacy does diovan come in generic form how much does a valtrex cost south africa k adalat papers in phytopathol medit susanne rooney metformin 500 mg preisvergleich ciloxan cost how does clomipramine work in dogs xenical pills for sale without prescription what is the cost of xalatan eye drops does coumadin have aspirin in it oxybutynin xl 15 mg lowest price zoloft 50 mg viagra equal to cialis ivermectin generic what is the generic for benicar 20 mg what is topamax 100 mg mobic available canada clonidine patch in withdrawal brand names clopidogrel india glimepiride 4 mg efectos secundarios cvs price cialis nizoral shampoo buy online pakistan nexium 20mg generico preço levothyroxine take in morning or evening how do i get viagra in singapore dostinex side effects in pregnancy aristocort ointment price pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in broiler chicken cialis for daily use 2.5 mg remeron causing ringing in ears cialis in farmacia serve la ricetta claritin fenofibrate suppliers in india benicar cheapest best male enhancement pills viagra adalat nasibov papers soco lens pixel virtual reality adult shops selling kamagra in dublin can oxybutynin be bought over the counter clomid for fertility buy in uk gumtree viagra in coventry mometasone furoate monohydrate generic many mgs ibuprofen too much 0.05 betamethasone uk keflex review acne nitroglycerin sublingual tablet brand list indian court ordered naltrexone is bupropion safe while breastfeeding calcitriol in tpn erythromycin digestive disorders compra genericos viagra warfarin 7.5 mg how old do you have to be to buy misoprostol does viagra keep you hard online cialis in ungarn how long does theophylline stay in your system generic of simvastatin cost of furadantin was ist am besten viagra cialis oder levitra joseph allegra papers history in csmr data integrity price of prozac in delhi paxil liquid side effects clomid and hair loss in men can i get misoprostol online in south africa albuterol safe for nursing mothers glucophage generic name where can i buy mifepristone and misoprostol online is lexapro safe to take while breastfeeding kann man viagra einzeln kaufen zyrtec 10 mg comprimé orodispersible buy cialis whilst in india bupropion cost in canada diflucan for yeast infection in dogs what countries can use viagra over the counter doxycycline monohydrate 50 mg for eyes benadryl taken off market can pregnant women take acyclovir 200 mg typical cost accutane voltaren rapid 12.5 liquid caps dosage nolvadex liquid oral hydroxyzine pamoate cap oral 25 mg cialis 20 mg take every day propranolol pode causar depressão para se usa ampicillin is it safe to use cipro hc after expiration date cymbalta for personality disorder india cialis cena rules and regulations for viagra in canada griseofulvin liquid dosage cefuroxime axetil 500 mg reviews seroquel xr break in half is gaba safe to take with lexapro tadalafil sites who accept paypal amoxicillin and clavulanic acid brand name minocycline for lymes in dogs is famciclovir over the counter maxolon priceline zyprexa discount coupons is spironolactone safe for dogs lansoprazole in south africa how to take sildenafil tablets 100 mg allegra causa inchaço naltrexone 25 mg half life ketoconazole sales cialis generic tadalafil what is in sumatriptan colcrys canada micardis 80 mg prix sale sildenafil ventolin 60 ml simvastatin cost ireland adalat crono 30 mg etken madde trileptal generic suspension split levitra in half risperdal and borderline personality disorder where is generic viagra legal altace 2.5 mg capsules viagra paypall australia pain care specialists in grove city ohio lerk sildenafil 50 mg english sildenafil se puede usar en mujeres topiramate 800 mg panadol and nurofen in court phenytoin 300 mg iv conjugated system papers in org electron degradation pl generic lisinopril 2.5 mg without prescription actos que pueden realizar los emancipados amoxicillin clavulanate potassium 875 mg do whats the generic name for coumadin zyprexa price 2.5 generic viagra levitra cialis gabapentin 600 mg side effects for dogs adalat nasibov papers in soco lens humbat nasibov pixel how often can i buy claritin d dramamine wholesale prednisone in bronchitis how much does amantadine cost gary ventolini papers r neiger in obstet gynecol surv fluoxetine price nz what are the side effects of ketoconazole 200 mg typical cost accutane generic 2.5mg daily cialis risk of taking ibuprofen in early pregnancy 15 mg buspirone hcl orlistat 120 mg es bueno amlodipine uk coumadin safe dose buy fluconazole usa tricor generic coupons why is nitroglycerin contraindicated in right sided mi calcitriol overdose in cats terbinafine lamisil tablets for sale ofloxacin hereisthebestin side effects lady viagra in syrup form tamoxifen howdotofound reviews how much does the generic form of lexapro cost cost of abilify oral solution is lamisil cream available over the counter what is oxcarbazepine 150 mg tablet acetaminophen codeine phosphate 300 mg can you sit in the sun while taking prednisone ciprofloxacina 500 mg ecomed ciprofloxacino arfloxina 500 mg remeron 30 mg pdf escitalopram 10 mg not working is there a generic drug for estrace distributor of avodart 500mg in mumbai generic valtrex otc bupropion mg dosage teva levofloxacin 500 mg side effects flagyl tablet manufacturer in pakistan celexa and anxiety disorder premarin generic available ear infection amoxicillin 500 mg generic brand cymbalta lawsuits how long does viagra work in women ic propranolol 20 mg seroquel x tab 400 mg preço do bactrim f generico escitalopram 10 mg 56 comprimidos mirtazapine 3.25 mg what is acyclovir 400 mg use for estradiol price comparison order spironolactone bertibarots allergic reactions in 15 yr olds to amoxicillin lisinopril 40 mg what is it is valtrex safe for pregnancy buy zithromax powder australia purchase ampicillin online labetalol costo viagra pesni online where is thyroxine produced in the body cephalexin 250 mg lupin side effects generic lamisil tablets cheap kamagranow canadian propecia wear can buy clomid from in the uk over the counter will ivermectin kill hookworms in dogs generic form of rhinocort price of cialis from cvs and walgreens falom sildenafil 50 mg are 800 mg ibuprofen addictive viagra cost at kroger clarithromycin resistance in lebanon genuine tadalafil uk half inderal in pregnancy dose of aciclovir in herpes zoster does estradiol have progesterone and estrogen in it finpecia prices hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg dosage is it safe to take outdated viagra zithromax liquid cost amoxicillin over the counter iceland can you buy nolvadex over the counter in australia gabapentin 600 mg pill simvastatin 10 mg image 10 mg lexapro premature abilify side effects in schizophrenia para que sirve la pastilla piroxicam 20 mg glucotrol brand name subcutaneously flagyl in dogs where can u buy 10 mg elavil usar sildenafil sin necesitarlo zyvox cost per pill generic ketrel tretinoin 0 05 price is voltaren gel safe for kids
Granite Island Group Banner

TDR Tutorial - Introduction to Time Domain Reflectometry

An Introduction to Time Domain Reflectometers

Time Domain Reflectometers have been around for many years and remain the fastest, most accurate way to pinpoint cabling problems.

Historically, the TDR has been reserved for only large companies and high level engineers. This was due to the complexity of operation and high cost of the instruments. The TDR has been greatly under utilized.

Riser-Bond Instruments recognized these shortcomings and developed the first "little TDR" in the early 1980s. The simplified digital TDR has now become a standard tool for the first level technician. Riser-Bond Instruments' complete product line has been permeated by the concept that test equipment should be simple, accurate, user-friendly, rugged, and high value for the cost.

Due to advances in today's technology, the operation and interpretation of a TDR have been greatly simplified. Because of its ability to identify cable problems, the TDR is now rapidly regaining popularity throughout communications industries.

If a cable is metal and it has at least two conductors, it can be tested by a TDR. TDRs will troubleshoot and measure all types of twisted pair and coaxial cables, both aerial and underground.

TDRs are used to locate and identify faults in all types of metallic paired cable. TDRs can locate major or minor cabling problems including; sheath faults, broken conductors, water damage, loose connectors, crimps, cuts, smashed cables, shorted conductors, system components, and a variety of other fault conditions. In addition, TDRs can be used to test reels of cable for shipping damage, cable shortages, cable usage, and inventory management.

The speed and accuracy of the time domain reflectometer makes it today's preferred method of cable fault location. Although today's instruments are more user friendly, a good understanding of the basic principles and applications of a TDR is essential to successful troubleshooting. Like all new equipment, getting to know the instrument and its operation makes the TDR a more valuable tool.

Principles of Operation

The TDR works on the same principle as radar. A pulse of energy is transmitted down a cable. When that pulse reaches the end of the cable, or a fault along the cable, part or all of the pulse energy is reflected back to the instrument.

The TDR measures the time it takes for the signal to travel down the cable, see the problem, and reflect back. The TDR then converts this time to distance and displays the information as a waveform and/or distance reading.


There are two ways a TDR can display the information it receives. The first and more traditional method is to display the actual waveform or "signature" of the cable. The display, which is either a CRT or an LCD, will display the outgoing (transmitted) pulse generated by the TDR and any reflections which are caused by impedance discontinuities along the length of the cable.

The second type of display is simply a numeric readout which supplies the distance indication in feet or meters to the first major reflection caused by an impedance change or discontinuity. Some instruments also display if the fault is an OPEN or SHORT indicating a HIGH IMPEDANCE change or a LOW IMPEDANCE change respectively.

Traditional Waveform TDRs supply more information than do the digital numeric versions. However, the simplified digital models are less expensive and easier to operate. Costing only a fraction of a traditional TDR, many simplified digital TDRs are just as accurate and can locate most major cable faults.


Any time two metallic conductors are placed close together, they form a cable impedance. A TDR looks for a change in impedance which can be caused by a variety of circumstances, including cable damage, water ingress, change in cable type, improper installation, and even manufacturing flaws.

The insulating material that keeps the conductors separated is called the cable dielectric. The impedance of the cable is determined by the spacing of the conductors from each other and the type of dielectric used.


If the conductors are manufactured with exact spacing and the dielectric is exactly constant, then the cable will be constant. If the conductors are randomly spaced or the dielectric changes along the cable, then the impedance will also vary along the cable.

A TDR sends electrical pulses down the cable and samples the reflected energy. Any impedance change will cause some energy to reflect back toward the TDR and will be displayed. How much the impedance changes determines the amplitude of the reflection.



Many TDRs have selectable pulse width settings. The larger the pulse width, the more energy is transmitted and therefore the further the signal will travel down the cable. Pulse widths may include 2 nsec, 10 nsec, 100 nsec, 1000 nsec, 2000 nsec, and 4000 nsec. A TDR may contain only one or all of the pulse width settings.

NOTE: Even when testing very long lengths of cable, always start the fault finding procedure in the shortest pulse width available, as the fault may be only a short distance away. If the fault is not located, switch to the next larger pulse width and retest. Keep switching to the next larger pulse until the fault is located.

Sometimes larger pulse widths are helpful even for locating faults that are relatively dose. If the fault is very small, the signal strength of a small pulse may not be enough to travel down the cable, " see" the fault, and travel back. The attenuation of the cable combined with the small reflection of the partial fault can make it difficult to detect. A larger pulse width would transmit more energy down the cable, making it easier to see the small fault.


The pulse generated by the TDR takes a certain amount of time and thus distance to launch. This distance is known as the blind spot. The length of the blind spot varies with the pulse width. The larger the pulse width, the larger the blind spot.

It is more difficult to locate a fault contained within the blind spot. If a fault is suspected within the first few feet of cable, it is advisable to add a length of cable between the TDR and the cable being tested. Any faults that may have been hidden in the blind spot can now easily be located. When adding a length of cable to eliminate the blind spot, remember the TDR is also reading the length of this jumper cable. The length of the jumper must be subtracted from the cable when measuring from the point of connection.

It is best if the jumper cable is the same impedance as the cable under test. The quality of the connection is an important factor regardless of the type of connection or jumper being used.


The TDR is an extremely accurate instrument. However, variables in the cable itself sometimes cause errors in distance measurements. One way to minimize error is to use the correct Velocity of Propagation (VOP) of the cable under test. The VOP is a specification of the cable indicating the speed at which a signal travels down the cable. Different cables have different VOPs. In order to assure the most accurate distance measurements, the cable VOP must be determined.

VOP Defined: The speed of light in a vacuum is 186,400 miles per second. This speed is represented by the number 1 (100%). All other signals are slower. A cable with a VOP of .85 would transmit a signal at 85% of the speed of light. A twisted pair cable, which typically has a lower VOP (such as .65), can transmit a signal at 65% of the speed of light.

The VOP number of a cable is determined by the dielectric material that separates the two conductors . In a coaxial cable, the foam separating the center conductor and the outer sheath is the material determining the VOP. In twisted pair, the VOP number is determined by the spacing between the plastic.

Knowing the VOP of a cable is the most important factor when using a TDR for fault finding. By entering the correct VOP, the instrument is calibrated to the particular cable. Typically, the VOP of the cable under test will be listed in the cable manufacturer's catalog or specification sheet. If not, simply measure a length of good cable (no faults) and change the TDR's VOP setting until the display shows the same distance reading as the measured length. The VOP of a cable can change with temperature and age. It can also vary from one manufacturing run to another. Even new cable can vary as much as +/- 3%.

One might think the variations in VOP would make it almost impossible to locate a fault accurately. Fortunately, there are ways to minimize the error in the VOP when testing a faulted cable, resulting in very accurate distance measurements. These techniques do not work when testing or measuring good (no fault) cable.

The most common technique used to reduce VOP error is to test the faulty cable from both ends. The procedure is as follows:

Determine the path of the cable. With a Measuring wheel or tape, measure the exact length of the cable being tested. Set the VOP according to the manufacturers specifications, test the cable from one end, and record the distance reading. Next, using the same VOP setting, test from the opposite end of the cable and record. If the sum of the readings is the exact length of the cable that was measured, the VOP is correct and the fault has been located.

If the sum of the two readings is more than the measured distance, reduce the VOP setting and re-test. If the sum of the two readings is less than the measured distance, increase the VOP setting. In this case, the operator must also consider the possibility of two faults.

The same result can be obtained mathematically. Take the actual cable length and divide by the sum of the two TDR readings obtained by the tests from each end . This gives the adjustment factor. Then multiply each of the TDR readings by the adjustment factor. This result will be the corrected length readings.

A partial listing of cable types and their Velocity of Propagation.


19 AWG Gel-Filled 68
22 AWG Gel-Filled 66
24 AWG Gel-Filled 62
26 AWG Gel-Filled 60
19 AWG AIR 72
22 AWG AIR 67
24 AWG AIR 66
26 AWG AIR 64
Polyethylene 66
Polypropylene 66
Teflon 69
PIC 67
Pulp 72

BeldenFoam 78S-82
Solid 66
Comm/Scope (F) 82
QR 88
Times Fiber RG-59 93
T4,6,10,TR+ 87
TX, TX10 89
Dynafoam 90
Trilogy (F) 83
CapScan FOAM S2
CC SS 88
CZ Labs FOAM 82
General Cable RG-59 82
MC2 93
Scientific AtlantaRG-59 81
Trunk 87
UTP 26 64
Thinnet 66-70
Ethernet 77
Token Ring 78
Arcnet 84
Twinaxial AIR 80
Twinaxial 71
Appletalk 68
Type 1 64
Type 2 66
Type 3 70
Type 4 72
Type 5 76
Type 6 78
Type 7 82
Type 8 84
Type 9 82
FHJI-50 1/4" 79
FSJI-50 1/4" 78
FSJ4-50B 1/2" 81
LDF2-50 3/8" 88
LDF4-50A 1/2" 80
LDF4-75 1/2" 88
LDF5-50A 7/8" 89
LDF7-50 1 5/8" 88
FT4-50 1/2" 85
FT5-50 7/8" 89
HJ4-50 1/2" 91
HJ5-50 7/8" 92
HJ5-75 7/8" 90
HJ7-50A 1 5/8" 92
HJS-50B 3" 93
HJ11-50 4" 92
HJ9-50 5" 93
FLC12-50J 1/2" 88
FLC78-50J 7/8" 88
FCC 38-50J 3/8" 81
FLC 12-50J 1/2" 88
FLC 78-50J 7/8" 88
FLC 158-50J 1 5/8" 88
920213 7/8" 99
920214 1 5/8" 99
HCC12-50J 1/2" 91
HCC7S-50J 7/8" 91
HCC15S-50J 1 5/8" 95
HCC300-50J 3" 96
HCC312-50J 3 1/2" 96
HF41/2CU24 4 1/2" 97

| TDR Principles of Operation | Usage Techniques | Waveform Analysis |
| General | CATV | Telephone | Broadcast | Cellular | 2-Way Radio | Power | LAN/WAN |
| Dual Twisted Pair and Coax TDR | Dual Twisted Pair TDR | Coax TDR | Basic Numeric TDR |

Advanced TSCM Signals Detection and Analysis
TSCM - Sweeping the Spectrum for Eavesdropping Devices

| Home | What is TSCM | Types of Bugs | Warning Signs You're Bugged |
| How To Behave if Bugged | TSCM Threat Levels | How To Engage a TSCM Firm |
| Qualifications | TSCM Protocol | Bug Frequencies | Phone Taps and Bugging |
| Signal Analysis | TDR Analysis | TDR Tutorial | Wiretapping | Training | Tools |
| Equipment | OSC-5000 | Kaiser | Riser Bond | Avcom | Search Rcvrs |
| Outside Links | Recommended TSCM Books | TSCM Reference Library |
| Recommended U.S. TSCM Firms | TSCM-L Mailing List |


Copyright ©2002, Granite Island Group